The University of Kansas and its athletics department brought suit against Larry Sinks, a manufacturer and retailer of merchandise doing business as Joe-College.com. Joe-College.com sells merchandise that reference Kansas Athletics programs, including T-shirts with irreverent sayings, as well as references to drugs and alcohol. Plaintiffs allege that the defendant’s goods infringe the registered and unregistered trademarks of the University of Kansas, including its crimson and blue color scheme. The university asserted claims for trademark infringement, trademark dilution, and unfair competition. Approximately 140 T-shirt designs used by the defendant were at issue in the litigation. This case illustrates the expanding scope of protection afforded to trademarks in sport that are used to communicate and distinguish a particular team’s brand. The case also explores the viability of the First Amendment as a defense to trademark infringement for retailers who produce merchandise that allows sports fans to express their message.
Lewis A. Curry and Sameep D. Maniar
The purpose of this paper is to describe content and methods of an academic course offered twice annually at an NCAA Division I University. With empirical support to the effectiveness of this academic approach to psychological skills training presented elsewhere (Curry & Maniar, 2003), the focus of this paper is on the type and extent of each intervention treatment during the 15-week semester course (Vealey, 1994). Course content includes applied strategies for best performance targeting, arousal/affect control, identifying purpose, goal setting, imagery, sport confidence, trust, flow, sport nutrition, on-/off-field problem solving, self-esteem, and life skills education on eating disorders and drug/alcohol abuse. Teaching methods include narrative story telling, small group activities, journal writing, cognitive-behavioral homework, brainteasers, and active learning demonstrations.
Michael A. Messner and William S. Solomon
This article analyzes the print media’s ideological framing of the 1991 story of boxer Sugar Ray Leonard’s admission of having physically abused his wife and abused cocaine and alcohol. We examined all news stories and editorials on the Leonard story in two major daily newspapers and one national sports daily. We found that all three papers framed the story as a “drug story,” while ignoring or marginalizing the “wife abuse” story. We argue that sports writers utilized an existing ideological “jocks-on-drugs” media package that framed this story as a moral drama of individual sin and public redemption. Finally, we describe and analyze the mechanisms through which the wife abuse story was ignored or marginalized.
Patrick Peretti-Watel, Valérie Guagliardo, Pierre Verger, Patrick Mignon, Jacques Pruvost and Yolande Obadia
This study examined attitudes toward doping among 458 French elite student-athletes (ESAs) ages 16–24, their correlates, and their relationship with cigarette, alcohol, and cannabis use. We found a consensus among ESAs concerning negative aspects of doping. A cluster analysis showed, however, that statements dealing with benefits of doping were endorsed by two significant minorities of respondents. These ESAs were more frequently older males with a lower parental academic achievement and no sporting history in their family. Recreational drug use depended on whether or not ESAs endorsed statements related to nonsporting benefits of doping. Using an analytical framework from the sociology of deviance, our findings suggest that athletes who dope themselves pursue legitimate goals with illegitimate means but justify their behavior with a legitimate rationale. Further research is needed on the nonrecreational use of recreational drugs.
This review summarizes results from studies investigating the physical characteristics, daily energy expenditures, diets, and effects of nutritional supplements to the habitual diets of soecer players. The results show that players fall within a wide range of stature and body weight, and they are classified as mesomorphs. The body fat of male players is about 10% of body weight, whereas the average for females is about 21%. Energy expenditure for males is about 4,000 kcal on training days and 3,800 keal on match day. while energy intake reported in other studies is on the order of 3,700 kcal. Carbohydrate (CHO), fat, and protein intakes are about 53,30, and 14% of energy intake, respectively, the remaining being from alcohol intake. There are indications that CHO supplements might be beneficial during soccer performance. However, more research is needed to clarity the importance of branched-chain amino acid and creatine supplementation in soccer.
Roberto Jerônimo dos Santos Silva, Diego Augusto Santos Silva and Antônio C. Oliveira
Several studies have shown that physical activity levels have declined in many countries, even with the regular practice of physical education in schools. The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence of low physical activity levels and associated factors in adolescents enrolled in public high schools in Northeastern Brazil.
The sample was composed of 2259 adolescents (62.3% female) aged 16.26 ± 1.1 years. A questionnaire was applied to collect data on physical activity levels, sociodemographic information, tobacco use and alcohol consumption, nutritional status and sedentary behavior. Descriptive statistics and Poisson regression hierarchized model with Prevalence Rate (PR) and P ≤ .05 were used.
Higher prevalence of low physical activity level (89.1%) was observed. It was observed that 19.6% of individuals did not attend physical education classes regularly. Association was identified between low physical activity level and older girls (P = .02) and not attending physical education classes (P < .01). In males, the group most likely to have that low physical activity level was those whose parents studied until three years (P = .04).
Low physical activity level was present in most adolescents, more evident in girls. Lifestyle changes are needed, with substitution of sedentary activities for physical and sport activities in schools.
Ashley Walker, Jody Langdon and Krystina Johnson
Young adults have the highest participation in physical activity but also have the highest incidence rates of binge drinking, cigarette smoking, and smokeless tobacco use. We examined these factors to determine whether there are relationships among physical activity and health risk behaviors.
We conducted correlation and χ2 analyses using the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment fall 2009 data set (N = 34,208) to examine the relationship among meeting physical-activity guidelines, binge drinking, and tobacco use among survey participants.
The data suggest a positive relationship between meeting physical-activity guidelines and binge drinking, with the strongest relationship between those reporting binge drinking 4 times in a 2-week period. Meeting physical-activity guidelines was negatively associated with cigarette use but positively associated with all other types of tobacco use.
Associations between physical activity and binge-drinking episodes indicate a need to address the relationship between heavy drinking and alcohol dependence and physical-activity behavior patterns. Further studies should examine relationships between physical activity and binge drinking in other age groups. Results also suggest the need to examine differing associations between physical activity and types of tobacco use.
Peter A. Farrell
Skeletal muscle proteins are constantly being synthesized and degraded, and the net balance between synthesis and degradation determines the resultant muscle mass. Biochemical pathways that control protein synthesis are complex, and the following must be considered: gene transcription, mRNA splicing, and transport to the cytoplasm; specific amino acyl-tRNA, messenger (mRNA), ribosomal (rRNA) availability; amino acid availability within the cell; the hormonal milieu; rates of mRNA translation; packaging in vesicles for some types of proteins; and post-translational processing such as glycation and phosphorylation/dephosphorylation. Each of these processes is responsive to the need for greater or lesser production of new proteins, and many states such as sepsis, uncontrolled diabetes, prolonged bed-rest, aging, chronic alcohol treatment, and starvation cause marked reductions in rates of skeletal muscle protein synthesis. In contrast, acute and chronic resistance exercise cause elevations in rates of muscle protein synthesis above rates found in nondiseased rested organisms, which are normally fed. Resistance exercise may be unique in this capacity. This chapter focuses on studies that have used exercise to elucidate mechanisms that explain elevations in rates of protein synthesis. Very few studies have investigated the effects of aging on these mechanisms; however, the literature that is available is reviewed.
José Castro-Piñero, Carmen Padilla-Moledo, Francisco B. Ortega, Diego Moliner-Urdiales, Xiaofen Keating and Jonatan R. Ruiz
We examined the association of cardiorespiratory fitness and fatness with health complaints and health risk behaviors in 691 (323 girls) Spanish children aged 6 to 17.9.
Health complaints and health risk behaviors were self-reported using items of the Health Behavior in School-aged Children questionnaire. Weight and height were measured and body mass index was computed. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured by the 20-m shuttle-run test, and youth categorized as fit/unfit.
Unfit youth were more likely to report health complaints sometime (OR: 2.556, 95% CI: 1.299–5.031; and OR: 1.997, 95% CI: 1.162–3.433, respectively) and health risk behaviors such as drinking alcohol sometime (OR: 5.142, 95% CI: 1.214–21.783; and OR: 2.413, 95% CI: 1.484–3.923) than their fit counterparts. Overweight-obese youth were more likely to report health complaints (OR: 1.732, 95% CI: 1.019–2.945; and OR: 1.983, 95% CI: 1.083–3.629, respectively). The analysis of the combined influence of fitness and fatness revealed that fit youth had lower health complaints index than the fat-unfit and unfat-unfit groups (all P < .05).
Low fitness and overweight-obesity increased the risk of having health complaints in youth, yet high levels of cardiorespiratory fitness might overcome deleterious effects of overweight-obesity on health complaints.
Susan J. Tarr and Jean L. Pyfer
The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of prenatal drug exposure on birth weight, birth length, head circumference, Apgar scores, length of gestation, and motor development (Psychomotor Development Index, PDI) scores. A meta-analytic review was conducted on 56 studies published between 1979 and June 25, 1993. There were 294 effect sizes computed using the means and standard deviations reported in each study. The composite effect sizes calculated for the growth and motor development variables were (a) –.55, p <.01, birth weight; (b) –.74, p < .01, birth length; (c) –.79, p < .01, head circumference; (d) –.45, p < .01, 1-min Apgar score; (e) –.62, p <.01, 5-min Apgar score; (f) –.36, p < .01, length of gestation; (g) –.07, p = .55, PDI score (3 months); (h) –.35, p <.01, PDI score (6 months); (i) –.74, p < .01, PDI score (12 months); (j) –.44, p <.01, PDI score (18 months); and (k) –.23, p <.01, PDI score (24 months). The results of this investigation demonstrated that the use/abuse of illicit substances, alcohol, or both by the mother does significantly affect the physical and motor development of neonates/infants exposed in utero.