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Janice M. Deakin, Janet L. Starkes and Digby Elliott

The influence of exercise-induced arousal on the processing of visual information by three age groups was tested. Subjects were required to perform the Treisman visual detection task both at rest and during a steady-state walk at 75% of their maximum heart rate. The expected age differences in perceptual performance were apparent. The detection performance of 8-year-olds was poorer than that of 11-year-olds and adults. Detection of conjoined feature targets, with increases in the array size, showed a decrement in comparison to single feature targets. Subjects responded more quickly at all levels of distraction when a target was present while they were exercising. The results supported certain elements of Treisman's feature integration theory. This study has provided evidence that an exercise stress equivalent to 75 % of maximum heart rate had a positive effect on the visual perceptual performance of all groups tested. Both array size and feature conditions interacted with age. This suggests that children are not able to avoid irrelevant information as effectively as adults. In addition, children are differentially affected by different target characteristics in the detection task.

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Stuart D.R. Galloway, Matthew J.E. Lott and Lindsay C. Toulouse

The present study aimed to investigate the influence of timing of preexercise carbohydrate feeding (Part A) and carbohydrate concentration (Part B) on short-duration high-intensity exercise capacity. In Part A, 17 males, and in Part B 10 males, performed a peak power output (PPO) test, two familiarization trials at 90% of PPO, and 4 (for Part A) or 3 (for Part B) experimental trials involving exercise capacity tests at 90% PPO. In Part A, the 4 trials were conducted following ingestion of a 6.4% carbohydrate/electrolyte sports drink ingested 30 (C30) or 120 (C120) minutes before exercise, or a flavor-matched placebo administered either 30 (P30) or 120 (P120) minutes before exercise. In Part B, the 3 trials were performed 30 min after ingestion of 0%, 2% or 12% carbohydrate solutions. All trials were performed in a double-blind cross-over design following and overnight fast. Dietary intake and activity in the 2 days before trials was recorded and replicated on each visit. Glucose, lactate, heart rate, and mood/arousal were recorded at intervals during the trials. In Part A, C30 produced the greatest exercise capacity (mean ± SD; 9.0 ± 1.9 min, p < .01) compared with all other trials (7.7 ± 1.5 min P30, 8.0 ± 1.7 min P120, 7.9 ± 1.9 min C120). In Part B, exercise capacity (min) following ingestion of the 2% solution (9.2 ± 2.1) compared with 0% (8.2 ± 0.7) and 12% (8.0 ± 1.3) solutions approached significance (p = .09). This study provides new evidence to suggest that timing of carbohydrate intake is important in short duration high-intensity exercise tasks, but a concentration effect requires further exploration.

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Romain Meeusen and Phil Watson

It is clear that the cause of fatigue is complex, infuenced by both events occurring in the periphery and the central nervous system (CNS). It has been suggested that exercise-induced changes in serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (DA), and noradrenaline (NA) concentrations contribute to the onset of fatigue during prolonged exercise. Serotonin has been linked to fatigue because of its documented role in sleep, feelings of lethargy and drowsiness, and loss of motivation, whereas increased DA and NA neurotransmission favors feelings of motivation, arousal, and reward. 5-HT has been shown to increase during acute exercise in running rats and to remain high at the point of fatigue. DA release is also elevated during exercise but appears to fall at exhaustion, a response that may be important in the fatigue process. The rates of 5-HT and DA/NA synthesis largely depend on the peripheral availability of the amino acids tryptophan (TRP) and tyrosine (TYR), with increased brain delivery increasing serotonergic and DA/NA activity, respectively. TRP, TYR, and the branched-chained amino acids (BCAAs) use the same transporter to pass through the blood-brain barrier, meaning that the plasma concentration ratio of these amino acids is thought to be a very important marker of neurotransmitter synthesis. Pharmacological manipulation of these neurotransmitter systems has provided support for an important role of the CNS in the development of fatigue. Work conducted over the last 20 y has focused on the possibility that manipulation of neurotransmitter precursors may delay the onset of fatigue. Although there is evidence that BCAA (to limit 5-HT synthesis) and TYR (to elevate brain DA/NA) ingestion can influence perceived exertion and some measures of mental performance, the results of several apparently well-controlled laboratory studies have yet to demonstrate a clear positive effect on exercise capacity or performance. There is good evidence that brain neurotransmitters can play a role in the development of fatigue during prolonged exercise, but nutritional manipulation of these systems through the provision of amino acids has proven largely unsuccessful.

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Gorden Sudeck, Stephanie Jeckel and Tanja Schubert

dimensions of pleasantness/unpleasantness, energetic arousal, and tense arousal/calmness. Despite the ongoing discussion about the best way to conceptualize and measure affective phenomena related to PA ( Ekkekakis & Zenko, 2016 ), Liao et al. ( 2015 ) summarized 12 studies that address the association

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Phillip D. Tomporowski and Daniel M. Pendleton

control participants when measured 24 hr later. Because memory test performance did not differ between the exercise conditions, the researchers proposed that the level of physiological arousal rather than the complexity of the physical activity explained mnemonic benefits. Likewise, Lundbye

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Rachel Arnold, Nicole Bolter, Lori Dithurbide, Karl Erickson, Blair Evans, Larkin Lamarche, Sean Locke, Eric Martin and Kathleen Wilson

Edited by Kim Gammage

, the purpose was to explore whether the use of two strategies, specifically distraction and cognitive reappraisal, would translate into changes in emotional arousal, emotional valence, perceived exertion, and prefrontal cortex activity during endurance exercise. The repeated-measures experimental

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Diane M. Ste-Marie

the development of execution/game strategies and motor routines) and performance (observing for the development of optimal arousal and mental states) functions of observation. The four articles presented in this special section on the use of observation to enhance motor skill acquisition serve to

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Kleverton Krinski, Daniel G. S. Machado, Luciana S. Lirani, Sergio G. DaSilva, Eduardo C. Costa, Sarah J. Hardcastle and Hassan M. Elsangedy

weight divided by height squared (kg/m 2 ). Body composition was determined using a whole-body DEXA scanner (DPX-IQ; Lunar Corp., Madison, WI). Instruction Protocol The participants were familiarized with the Borg RPE Scale, the Feeling Scale (FS), the Felt Arousal Scale (FAS), the Attention Scale, as

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other factors (eg, training load, etc) beside dietary interventions may have a strong influence on endogenous fuel bioenergetics. Acute Caffeine Ingestion and Exercise Intensity Affects Executive and Arousal Vigilance Differently C. Sanchis, PhD 1 ; F. Luna, MS 2 ; C. Monleón, PhD 1 ; J. Lupiáñez, PhD 2

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Molly P. O’Sullivan, Matthew R. Nagy, Shannon S. Block, Trevor R. Tooley, Leah E. Robinson, Natalie Colabianchi and Rebecca E. Hasson

, replacing PE with seated computer games) in the third- and fourth-grade students. A central tenet of the ActivityStat hypothesis is that children are inherently active because physical activity provides sensory information to the central nervous system (CNS) needed for arousal ( 17 ). Children, however, may