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Nancy A. Ecclestone, Anita M. Myers and Donald H. Paterson

The Centre for Activity and Ageing offers multiple physical activity programs for the general public of older adults. Using a database of 670 registrants, we tracked 541 individuals in 12 programs at the same location over a 3-year period (1992-1995). We found program differences in gender and age mix, attendance patterns, and long-term adherence. Overall, we found a 68% attendance rate and adherence rates of 59%, 51%, and 43% at 6 months, 12 months, and 36 months, respectively. About 21% of participants tried out or transferred between programs during the tracking period, and these individuals were significantly more likely to remain at the center over 3 years. Longitudinal tracking demonstrates that program adherence is not necessarily the same as exercise adherence: older adults leave, rejoin, and switch exercise classes as their commitments and interests change. We project that 50% or more of older adults joining community programs will be long-term adherents to exercise.

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Joanne M. Daly, Britton W. Brewer, Judy L. Van Raalte, Albert J. Petitpas and Joseph H. Sklar

Cognitive appraisal models of adjustment to sport injury hold that cognitive appraisals of the injury determine emotional responses to the injury, which in turn influence behavioral responses (e.g., adherence to rehabilitation). To test this model, recreational and competitive athletes undergoing rehabilitation following knee surgery (N = 31) appraised their ability to cope with their injury and completed a measure of mood disturbance. Adherence to rehabilitation was measured in terms of attendance at rehabilitation sessions and physical therapist/athletic trainer ratings of patient behavior during rehabilitation sessions. As predicted, cognitive appraisal was associated with emotional disturbance. Emotional disturbance was inversely related to one measure of adherence (attendance) but was unrelated to the other measure of adherence (physical therapist/athletic trainer ratings). The results of this study provide support for cognitive appraisal models and suggest that emotional disturbance may be a marker for poor adherence to sport injury rehabilitation regimens.

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Andrew R. Levy, Remco C.J. Polman, Peter J. Clough, David C. Marchant and Keith Earle

Objective:

To investigate the relationship between mental toughness, sport injury beliefs, pain, and adherence toward a sport injury rehabilitation program.

Design:

A prospective design was employed that evaluated adherence over the entire rehabilitation period.

Participants:

70 patients undertaking a sport injury rehabilitation program for a tendonitis related injury.

Main Outcome Measures:

Adherence was measured using self report measures of clinic and home based rehabilitation alongside attendance.

Results:

No association was found between mental toughness and coping appraisals, although high mentally tough individuals displayed more positive threat appraisals and were better able to cope with pain than their less mentally tough counterparts. Greater attendance at rehabilitation sessions was displayed by more mentally tough individuals; however, more positive behavior during clinic rehabilitation was characterized by low mental toughness.

Conclusions:

Despite the 0benefits of being mentally tough, sports medicine providers need to be aware that a high degree of mental toughness may have negative consequences upon rehabilitation behavior and subsequently recovery outcomes.

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Constantinos A. Loucaides, Sue M. Chedzoy, Neville Bennett and Karen Walshe

This study examined the association between self-reported physical activity and a number of potential correlates in a sample of 256 Grade-6 children. Physical activity was assessed in both summer and winter, and children and parents completed questionnaires assessing potential correlates of physical activity. Analyses revealed that gender, time spent playing outside, self-efficacy in overcoming barriers, and number of items of exercise equipment at home were variables associated with physical activity in both seasons. School location was a variable associated with physical activity only in the summer, whereas private-lesson attendance, sports-club attendance, and best friend’s physical activity were variables associated with physical activity only in winter. Variance explained in physical activity were 42% and 51% in winter and summer, respectively.

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Mauricio Ferreira

Understanding how spectators make decisions among the multiplicity of sport alternatives is important to the development of marketing strategies. In this study, a hierarchical choice framework was adopted to help illuminate the process in which individuals deal with sport substitution decisions within one university setting. In a forced-choice experiment, 419 college students were presented with existing sport offerings and asked, under constraint-free conditions, to make attendance choices with and without the most preferred alternative available. By observing students’ choices, the choice process was inferred based on the degree of switching that occurred between the two scenarios and tested whether it followed a hierarchical scheme. Results supported a “tree” structure for attendance choices, in which students consider the specific sport before considering the alternatives within the sport. Thus, under the conditions tested substitution was more likely to occur between alternatives of the same sport than either between different sports with the same sex of participants or proportionally across all alternatives.

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Cynthia S. Teel, Paula Carson, Janet Hamburg and Alicia Ann Clair

The authors developed a program for older adults to improve spatial awareness and sense of balance while promoting person-environment interaction. Motivating Moves, a 20-min program of 14 movement sequences set to original music, was offered to 4 groups of older adults (N = 66, mean age = 80.97, SD = 7.34) during 6 weekly 1-hr sessions. Participants learned new movements during the First 5 weeks, and all movements were reviewed in the 6th week. Program evaluation was based on attendance-pattern data, self-report measures of program satisfaction, and focus-group interviews. Approximately 64% of enrollees (n = 42) completed the program, and attendance rates were high (>89%) for these individuals. Participants reported benefits of Motivating Moves’, such as enhanced posture awareness, improved sense of balance, and increased social interaction. Issues related to developing and offering a movement program with music are reviewed, with attention to potential difficulties and suggestions for program implementation.

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Fuzhong Li, Edward McAuley, Peter Harmer, Terry E. Duncan and Nigel R. Chaumeton

The article describes a randomized, controlled trial conducted to examine the effects of a Tai Chi intervention program on perceptions of personal efficacy and exercise behavior in older adults. The sample comprised 94 low-active, healthy participants (mean age = 72.8 years. SD = 5.1) randomly assigned to either an experimental (Tai Chi) group or a wait-list control group. The study length was 6 months, with self-efficacy responses (barrier, performance efficacies) assessed at baseline, at Week 12, and at termination (Week 24) of the study. Exercise attendance was recorded as an outcome measure of exercise behavior. Random-effects models revealed that participants in the experimental group experienced significant improvements in self-efficacy over the course of the intervention. Subsequent repeated-measures ANOVA revealed that participants’ changes in efficacy were associated with higher levels of program attendance. The findings suggest that self-efficacy can be enhanced through Tai Chi and that the changes in self-efficacy are likely to improve exercise adherence.

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Annie Holt, Andy H. Lee, Jonine Jancey, Deborah Kerr and Peter Howat

Purpose:

This study investigated physical activity (PA) facilities of retirement villages (RVs) and neighborhood PA barriers identified by RV residents in Perth, Australia.

Methods:

An environmental audit of PA facilities was undertaken on 50 RV with 50+ independent living units, using the Audit of Physical Activity Resources for Seniors. Telephone interviews with 200 RV residents were conducted to identify neighborhood barriers to walking, and to obtain information on utilization of facilities and attendance of PA programs.

Results:

Larger size RV appeared to provide significantly more PA facilities and programs. Utilization of PA facilities and program attendance were low (≈ 50%) and not associated with the RV environment (size, age, and facilities). Neighborhood barriers to walking were unsafe streets and hills.

Discussion:

RV offers an attractive residential option with facilities that support active aging, but it is important to understand the barriers and enablers to use such facilities and attend programs offered.

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Wanzhu Tu, Timothy E. Stump, Teresa M. Damush and Daniel O. Clark

This research investigated the effects of health and environmental factors on the dropout and intermittent nonattendance of an exercise program designed specifically for older, female, primary-care patients living in the inner city. Class-attendance records (n = 21,538) from a cohort 110 women were analyzed. Women who dropped out early had poorer perceived health and were more likely to report pain as an exercise barrier at baseline. Those who lived in a census tract where a larger percentage of workers walk to work were less likely to drop out early. Intermittent nonattendance was associated with adverse weather conditions including heat index above 90 ºF, wind-chill index below 20 ºF, overcast sky, and snow. Better attendance was associated with greater atmospheric pressure, as well as lower number of sunlight hours per day. This research highlights the need to better understand environmental barriers when promoting physical activities in older women.

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Janice C. Wendt and Linda L. Bain

Physical educators’ perceptions of stressful teaching events do not change over a period of 1 to 5 years of teaching experience. Although there was a trend for priority and teaching function perceptions to be rated lower, no significant differences were found when using a MANOVA. Notification of unsatisfactory performance and being involuntarily transferred were rated the most stressful by both groups. Rated least stressful by both student and novice teachers was attendance at inservice meetings.