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Nicholas M. Watanabe, Grace Yan, Brian P. Soebbing and Ann Pegoraro

dataset controlling for all bots, spam, and inactive users requires larger scale data collection capabilities that are not available in this study. Another limitation is that due to technological barriers in the collection of social media data, such as rate-limiting access to the platforms, as well as the

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Patti Millar and Alison Doherty

building is purported to rely on readiness to build, with respect to the identified objectives and alternative strategies. The organizational readiness factor relates to the human barriers or conditions (ability, willingness, and motivation of board members and club volunteers) associated with (un

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Lauren C. Hindman and Nefertiti A. Walker

roles, they have to demonstrate exceptionalism to overcome gender barriers ( Shaw & Hoeber, 2003 ). Men’s sports, in particular, have a culture that is “hyper-masculine, gender exclusive, and resistant to change” ( Walker & Sartore-Baldwin, 2013 , p. 308). The gendered nature of organizational culture

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Georgios Nalbantis, Marcel Fahrner and Tim Pawlowski

( Gilbert, Lee-Kelley, & Barton, 2003 ) or risk perception ( Garbarino & Strahilevitz, 2004 ). Males are considered to be “quick shoppers,” which in turn may have an effect on their perception of the benefits of, or barriers to, online purchases ( Hansen & Jensen, 2009 ). However, several findings indicate

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Anna Gerke and Yan Dalla Pria

phenomenon. The absence of interorganizational linkages, established institutional structures, and a sport system closed toward the private sector were barriers to the development of a sport cluster ( Hillairet, 2002 ; Hillairet & Richard, 2005 ; Richard, 2007 ). Although nonprofit organizations including

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Chen Chen and Daniel S. Mason

have faced various barriers in settler societies (e.g., see Forsyth & Wamsley, 2006 ). A traditional game of various Indigenous communities in North America ( Downey, 2018 ), lacrosse is also officially recognized as Canada’s national summer sport ( National Sports of Canada Act, 1994 ). When the

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Fei Gao, Bob Heere, Samuel Y. Todd and Brian Mihalik

the event itself instead. The Implicit/Explicit Influence of the Chinese Culture on the IOR Another barrier to the initiation of social leverage strategies was the overarching implicit/explicit influence of the Chinese culture on the IOR. Two themes that are grounded in the Chinese culture came

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Heather Kennedy, Bradley J. Baker, Jeremy S. Jordan and Daniel C. Funk

enhance their parents’ involvement levels ( Hasbrook, 1986 ; Snyder & Purdy, 1982 ). Alternatively, to overcome the additional barriers to training and race participation that may arise due to the presence of children, race participants with children may have been required to develop higher levels of

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Fernando Borges

audiovisual services; at the same time they lowered the barriers to entering the media market for content producers. Although there are still elevated production and human-resources costs, through digital production, soccer clubs may vertically integrate the sport, media, and commercial activities in their

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Sara Santarossa, Paige Coyne, Sarah J. Woodruff and Craig G. Greenham

important than their male counterparts, and their achievements are less impressive ( McGregor & Melville, 1993/1994 ). The skewed media treatment leads to, and reinforces, barriers to participation for female athletes ( Mathesen & Flatten, 1996 ). ESPN’s decision to promote only male athletes on its