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Ian O’Boyle, David Shilbury and Lesley Ferkins

think it’s up to them to some extent as to how available they are in terms of their time commitments so that some will have more availability than others. The barriers are two—time and distance. (G4) It’s never been in my mind that one is paid and one isn’t but, yeah, probably a paid chairman might be

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Christopher M. McLeod and Calvin Nite

make MMA appealing to new participants, but they also created and maintained barriers, which hindered retention, suggesting a need for alternative fighter development models. Since new sport systems rearrange stakeholders, cause conflicts, and influence athlete development, it is important to develop a

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Jesse King and Robert Madrigal

intensity, (b) are able to pass around small barriers, and (c) can bounce off large barriers. Although the surface elements are different (e.g., water vs. sound), the underlying structural parallels between the elements are similar across contexts. In addition to articulation type, this current research

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Nicholas M. Watanabe, Grace Yan, Brian P. Soebbing and Ann Pegoraro

dataset controlling for all bots, spam, and inactive users requires larger scale data collection capabilities that are not available in this study. Another limitation is that due to technological barriers in the collection of social media data, such as rate-limiting access to the platforms, as well as the

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Lauren C. Hindman and Nefertiti A. Walker

roles, they have to demonstrate exceptionalism to overcome gender barriers ( Shaw & Hoeber, 2003 ). Men’s sports, in particular, have a culture that is “hyper-masculine, gender exclusive, and resistant to change” ( Walker & Sartore-Baldwin, 2013 , p. 308). The gendered nature of organizational culture

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Patti Millar and Alison Doherty

building is purported to rely on readiness to build, with respect to the identified objectives and alternative strategies. The organizational readiness factor relates to the human barriers or conditions (ability, willingness, and motivation of board members and club volunteers) associated with (un

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Fei Gao, Bob Heere, Samuel Y. Todd and Brian Mihalik

the event itself instead. The Implicit/Explicit Influence of the Chinese Culture on the IOR Another barrier to the initiation of social leverage strategies was the overarching implicit/explicit influence of the Chinese culture on the IOR. Two themes that are grounded in the Chinese culture came

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Georgios Nalbantis, Marcel Fahrner and Tim Pawlowski

( Gilbert, Lee-Kelley, & Barton, 2003 ) or risk perception ( Garbarino & Strahilevitz, 2004 ). Males are considered to be “quick shoppers,” which in turn may have an effect on their perception of the benefits of, or barriers to, online purchases ( Hansen & Jensen, 2009 ). However, several findings indicate

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Anna Gerke and Yan Dalla Pria

phenomenon. The absence of interorganizational linkages, established institutional structures, and a sport system closed toward the private sector were barriers to the development of a sport cluster ( Hillairet, 2002 ; Hillairet & Richard, 2005 ; Richard, 2007 ). Although nonprofit organizations including

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Heather Kennedy, Bradley J. Baker, Jeremy S. Jordan and Daniel C. Funk

enhance their parents’ involvement levels ( Hasbrook, 1986 ; Snyder & Purdy, 1982 ). Alternatively, to overcome the additional barriers to training and race participation that may arise due to the presence of children, race participants with children may have been required to develop higher levels of