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Catherine Mason and Matt Greig

limbs and ultimately to the spine of the rider. Torque transducers embedded within the stirrup of a riding simulator offer insight into the forces transmitted from the horse, 7 and laboratory-based biomechanical models using a combination of kinematic and kinetic data provide potential to quantify

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Ghazaleh Azizpour, Matteo Lancini, Giovanni Incerti, Paolo Gaffurini and Giovanni Legnani

’s performance during biomechanical activities or rehabilitation programs, and depend on many factors, such as sex, age, or body structure. 3 The complex process of determining inertial characteristics of a given subject is one of the main impediments of biomechanical modeling studies. The analyses are often

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Daniel C. McFarland, Alexander G. Brynildsen and Katherine R. Saul

J , Ambrosio J , Monteiro J . Critical analysis of musculoskeletal modelling complexity in multibody biomechanical models of the upper limb . Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin . 2015 ; 18 ( 7 ): 749 – 759 . PubMed ID: 24156405 doi:10.1080/10255842.2013.845879 10

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Pedro Jiménez-Reyes, Amador García-Ramos, Victor Cuadrado-Peñafiel, Juan A. Párraga-Montilla, José A. Morcillo-Losa, Pierre Samozino and Jean-Benoît Morin

0 , P max , DRF, and RFpeak) according to Samozino’s method and to determine sprint time to 5 and 20 m. Samozino’s method is a macroscopic biomechanical model that has been validated for estimating external horizontal force production during sprinting from the velocity of the center of mass using

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Michelle A. Sandrey, Yu-Jen Chang and Jean L. McCrory

, Shabshin N , Gefen A . Biomechanical model for stress fracture–related factors in athletes and soldiers . Med Sci Sports Exerc . 2018 ; 50 ( 9 ): 1827 – 1836 . PubMed ID: 29614000 doi: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000001628 29614000 37. Bowser BJ , Fellin R , Milner CE , Pohl MB , Davis IS

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Bill Stodart, Maria Cup and Curtis Kindel

tuberosity from under the coracoacromial arch during overhead movements, thus minimizing subacromial impingement. 6 Based on 3-dimensional biomechanical models, the maximum predicted force output of infraspinatus is 5 to 6 times that of teres minor between the angles of 0° and 90° abduction. 7 As the

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William H. Clark and Jason R. Franz

.12.014 24365635 4. Rouse EJ , Gregg RD , Hargrove LJ , Sensinger JW . The difference between stiffness and quasi-stiffness in the context of biomechanical modeling . IEEE Trans Biomed Eng . 2013 ; 60 ( 2 ): 562 – 568 . PubMed ID: 23212310 doi:10.1109/TBME.2012.2230261 23212310 10.1109/TBME.2012

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Bernard Liew, Kevin Netto and Susan Morris

running performance while minimizing injury risks, 6 researchers have developed and refined human biomechanical models of unloaded running (ie, running with no external load). 9 Human unloaded running is often modeled as a spring-mass system. 9 In this model, the most important variable

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Kayleigh R. Erickson, Gregory J. Grosicki, Mara Mercado and Bryan L. Riemann

, 23 ( 10 ), 1269 – 1278 . PubMed ID: 18757121 doi: 10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2008.06.011 Eltoukhy , M. , Travascio , F. , Asfour , S. , Elmasry , S. , Heredia-Vargas , H. , & Signorile , J. ( 2016 ). Examination of a lumbar spine biomechanical model for assessing axial compression, shear

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Gabrielle G. Gilmer, Jessica K. Washington, Jeffrey R. Dugas, James R. Andrews and Gretchen D. Oliver

.1080/02640414.2013.770907 10.1080/02640414.2013.770907 23419054 13. Keeley DW , Oliver GD , Dougherty CP . A biomechanical model correlating shoulder kinetics to pain in young baseball pitchers . J Hum Kinet . 2012 ; 34 : 15 – 20 . PubMed ID: 23486209 doi:10.2478/v10078-012-0059-8 10.2478/v10078-012-0059-8 23486209