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Louise M. Burke, Graeme L. Close, Bronwen Lundy, Martin Mooses, James P. Morton and Adam S. Tenforde

), requiring aggressive (∼50% of the daily total) energy intake from carbohydrate-rich drinks and foods consumed while riding ( Saris et al., 1989 ). Nevertheless, most studies of Grand Tour racing typically report surprisingly low body mass losses/apparent energy deficits in these conditions ( Jeukendrup et

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Christopher Byrne and Jason K.W. Lee

production  W 943 (114) 739–1132  W·m −2 531 (52) 448–622  W·kg −1 14.4 (1.4) 12.2–16.9 Fluid intake, L 0.29 (0.21) 0–0.74 Sweat loss, L 2.58 (0.59) 1.54–4.40 Sweat rate, L·h −1 1.45 (0.33) 0.85–2.28 Body-mass loss, kg 2.58 (0.61) 1.73–4.46 Dehydration, % 3.93 (0.80) 2.53–6.20 Abbreviations: HR, heart rate

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Graeme L. Close, Craig Sale, Keith Baar and Stephane Bermon

. , & Tipton , K.D. ( 2010 ). Increased protein intake reduces lean body mass loss during weight loss in athletes . Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 42 , 326 – 337 . PubMed ID: 19927027 doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181b2ef8e 10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181b2ef8e Miller , B.F. , Hansen , M. , Olesen , J

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Gary J. Slater, Jennifer Sygo and Majke Jorgensen

euhydration, drink to their thirst and gastrointestinal tolerance, and limit body mass loss to no more than 2–3% during any one training session, complementing this with aggressive postexercise recovery strategies, inclusive of adequate fluid and electrolytes. See also Casa et al. ( 2018 ). Recovery Given

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Philo U. Saunders, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Robert F. Chapman and Julien D. Périard

to minimize body mass losses induced via sweating, while using caution to avoid overdrinking. Those who sweat profusely may require supplementing their fluids with additional sodium (e.g., 3.0 g of salt added to 0.5 L of a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution). From a practical perspective, it was

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Oliver C. Witard, Ina Garthe and Stuart M. Phillips

reduces lean body mass loss during weight loss in athletes . Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 42 ( 2 ), 326 – 337 . doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181b2ef8e 10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181b2ef8e Moberg , M. , Apro , W. , Ekblom , B. , van Hall , G. , Holmberg , H.C. , & Blomstrand , E. ( 2016

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Amy J. Hector and Stuart M. Phillips

, N.M. ( 2018 ). Prohibited contaminants in dietary supplements . Sports Health, 10 ( 1 ), 19 – 30 . doi:10.1177/1941738117727736 10.1177/1941738117727736 Mettler , S. , Mitchell , N. , & Tipton , K.D. ( 2010 ). Increased protein intake reduces lean body mass loss during weight loss in

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Claire E. Badenhorst, Katherine E. Black and Wendy J. O’Brien

). The physiological characteristics that could potentially influence IL-6 and hepcidin were not different between the dietary groups at the baseline, nor were the total energy expenditure (6,155 kcal/day), body mass loss (2.7 kg), and energy deficit (∼55%) at the end of the march. Samples were collected