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Ulrika Andersson-Hall, Stefan Pettersson, Fredrik Edin, Anders Pedersen, Daniel Malmodin and Klavs Madsen

.2165/00007256-200535050-00003 10.2165/00007256-200535050-00003 Mettler , S. , Mitchell , N. , & Tipton , K.D. ( 2010 ). Increased protein intake reduces lean body mass loss during weight loss in athletes . Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 42 ( 2 ), 326 – 337 . PubMed doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181b2ef8e 10.1249/MSS

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Alan J. McCubbin, Anyi Zhu, Stephanie K. Gaskell and Ricardo J.S. Costa

, and TTE No differences were observed between the trials for pre exercise nude body mass (CES-HGel 75.8 ± 4.7 kg and CES-Std 75.8 ± 4.8 kg; p  = 1.00) or total body water (CES-HGel 44.5 ± 2.5 L and CES-Std 44.6 ± 2.6 L; p  = .513). Body mass loss throughout exercise was not different between trials

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Louise M. Burke, Graeme L. Close, Bronwen Lundy, Martin Mooses, James P. Morton and Adam S. Tenforde

), requiring aggressive (∼50% of the daily total) energy intake from carbohydrate-rich drinks and foods consumed while riding ( Saris et al., 1989 ). Nevertheless, most studies of Grand Tour racing typically report surprisingly low body mass losses/apparent energy deficits in these conditions ( Jeukendrup et

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Oliver C. Witard, Ina Garthe and Stuart M. Phillips

reduces lean body mass loss during weight loss in athletes . Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 42 ( 2 ), 326 – 337 . doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181b2ef8e 10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181b2ef8e Moberg , M. , Apro , W. , Ekblom , B. , van Hall , G. , Holmberg , H.C. , & Blomstrand , E. ( 2016

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Amy J. Hector and Stuart M. Phillips

, N.M. ( 2018 ). Prohibited contaminants in dietary supplements . Sports Health, 10 ( 1 ), 19 – 30 . doi:10.1177/1941738117727736 10.1177/1941738117727736 Mettler , S. , Mitchell , N. , & Tipton , K.D. ( 2010 ). Increased protein intake reduces lean body mass loss during weight loss in

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Graeme L. Close, Craig Sale, Keith Baar and Stephane Bermon

. , & Tipton , K.D. ( 2010 ). Increased protein intake reduces lean body mass loss during weight loss in athletes . Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 42 , 326 – 337 . PubMed ID: 19927027 doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181b2ef8e 10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181b2ef8e Miller , B.F. , Hansen , M. , Olesen , J

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Christopher Byrne and Jason K.W. Lee

production  W 943 (114) 739–1132  W·m −2 531 (52) 448–622  W·kg −1 14.4 (1.4) 12.2–16.9 Fluid intake, L 0.29 (0.21) 0–0.74 Sweat loss, L 2.58 (0.59) 1.54–4.40 Sweat rate, L·h −1 1.45 (0.33) 0.85–2.28 Body-mass loss, kg 2.58 (0.61) 1.73–4.46 Dehydration, % 3.93 (0.80) 2.53–6.20 Abbreviations: HR, heart rate

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David N. Borg, Ian B. Stewart, John O. Osborne, Christopher Drovandi, Joseph T. Costello, Jamie Stanley and Geoffrey M. Minett

exercise in a temperate environment. 7 In contrast to our findings, these studies 7 , 29 observed classic signs of heat acclimation (eg, reduced HR, greater body mass loss). Differences in intervention length, training duration, and participants’ training status may explain the conflicting results. 7

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Philo U. Saunders, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Robert F. Chapman and Julien D. Périard

to minimize body mass losses induced via sweating, while using caution to avoid overdrinking. Those who sweat profusely may require supplementing their fluids with additional sodium (e.g., 3.0 g of salt added to 0.5 L of a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution). From a practical perspective, it was

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Claire E. Badenhorst, Katherine E. Black and Wendy J. O’Brien

). The physiological characteristics that could potentially influence IL-6 and hepcidin were not different between the dietary groups at the baseline, nor were the total energy expenditure (6,155 kcal/day), body mass loss (2.7 kg), and energy deficit (∼55%) at the end of the march. Samples were collected