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Fleur E.C.A. van Rens, Rebecca A. Ashley and Andrea R. Steele

competed in a variety of sports; for an overview, please refer to Table  3 . Table 3 Number of Participants per Sport Sport Participants, n Australian rules football 15 Basketball 8 Soccer 7 Netball 5 Hockey 4 Athletics 3 Rugby 3 Cycling (track or road) 3 BMX racing 2 Triathlon 2 Bodybuilding 2 Ice hockey

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Martin J. Turner, Stuart Carrington and Anthony Miller

), bodybuilding ( n  = 1), golf ( n  = 1), show jumping ( n  = 4), hockey ( n  = 5), mixed martial arts ( n  = 1), karate ( n  = 1), rugby ( n  = 7), shooting ( n  = 1), volleyball ( n  = 1), dance ( n  = 1), pool ( n  = 1), mountaineering ( n  = 1), karting ( n  = 1), and triathlon ( n  = 9). Participants were

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Gabriella Berwig Möller, Maria Júlia Vieira da Cunha Goulart, Bruna Bellincanta Nicoletto, Fernanda Donner Alves and Cláudia Dornelles Schneider

 al., 2016 ). Immunity or metabolic outcomes One study ( Abbasi et al., 2015 ) evaluating bodybuilding athletes found positive effects of the intervention with probiotics after acute aerobic exercise protocol (without performance evaluation). The intervention group decreased total cholesterol and

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Ina Garthe and Ronald J. Maughan

• 30 bodybuilding clubs • 19–28 years Self-administered supplements questionnaire/checklist; current use Overall: 49 (87 M vs. 11 F) (M vs. F) Health (31% vs. 59%); immune (27% vs. 53%); performance (41% vs. 9%) Hormones: 17 vs. 0 Creatine: 61 vs. 0 Vitamins: 52 vs. 4 Mineral: 15 vs. 10 Baylis et

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Jennifer Sygo, Alicia Kendig Glass, Sophie C. Killer and Trent Stellingwerff

. Slater , G. , & Phillips , S.M. ( 2011 ). Nutrition guidelines for strength sports: Sprinting, weightlifting, throwing events, and bodybuilding . Journal of Sports Sciences, 29 ( Suppl. 1 ), S67 – S77 . doi:10.1080/02640414.2011.574722 10.1080/02640414.2011.574722 Snijders , T. , Res , P

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Ida A. Heikura, Arja L.T. Uusitalo, Trent Stellingwerff, Dan Bergland, Antti A. Mero and Louise M. Burke

. ( 2017 ). Negative consequences of low energy availability in natural male bodybuilding: A review . International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 1 – 31 . PubMed ID: 28530498 doi:10.1123/ijsnem.2016-0332 Gibbs , J.C. , Nattiv , A. , Barrack , M.T. , Williams , N.I. , Rauh

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, calorie reduction, supplementation regimes and peaking strategies in a bid to lose fat mass while maintaining fat free mass. Research into the contest preparation regimes of bodybuilders is limited. The British Natural Bodybuilding Federation (BNBF) runs an annual drug free competition for elite

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Margo Mountjoy, Jorunn Sundgot-Borgen, Louise Burke, Kathryn E. Ackerman, Cheri Blauwet, Naama Constantini, Constance Lebrun, Bronwen Lundy, Anna Melin, Nanna Meyer, Roberta Sherman, Adam S. Tenforde, Monica Klungland Torstveit and Richard Budgett

energy availability in natural male bodybuilding: A review . International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 3 , 1 – 18 . doi:10.1123/ijsnem.2016-0332 Fairburn , C.G. , & Beglin , S.J. ( 1994 ). Assessment of eating disorders: Interview or self-report questionnaire