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Kristen M. Metcalf, Elena M. Letuchy, Steven M. Levy and Kathleen F. Janz

. Br J Sports Med . 2014 ; 48 : 1032 – 6 . PubMed ID: 24837241 doi:10.1136/bjsports-2014-093574 14. Kalkwarf HJ , Laor T , Bean JA . Fracture risk in children with a forearm injury is associated with volumetric bone density and cortical area (by peripheral QCT) and areal bone density (by DXA

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Flinn Shiel, Carl Persson, Vini Simas, James Furness, Mike Climstein, Rod Pope and Ben Schram

.1097/MCO.0b013e32830b5f23 10.1097/MCO.0b013e32830b5f23 Lewiecki , E.M. ( 2005 ). Clinical applications of bone density testing for osteoporosis . Minerva Medica, 96 ( 5 ), 317 – 330 . PubMed Lexell , J.E. , & Downham , D.Y. ( 2005 ). How to assess the reliability of measurements in

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George Wilson, Jerry Hill, Daniel Martin, James P. Morton and Graeme L. Close

.P. , & Close , G.L. ( 2018 ). Male flat jockeys do not display deteriorations in bone density or resting metabolic rate in accordance with race riding experience: Implications for RED-S . International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 28 ( 4 ), 434 – 439 . PubMed ID: 29431539 doi:10

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Nura Alwan, Samantha L. Moss, Kirsty J. Elliott-Sale, Ian G. Davies and Kevin Enright

Layne , J.E. , & Nelson , M.E. ( 1999 ). The effects of progressive resistance training on bone density: A review . Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 31 ( 1 ), 25 – 30 . PubMed ID: 9927006 doi:10.1097/00005768-199901000-00006 10.1097/00005768-199901000-00006 Loucks , A.B. , & Heath

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Graeme L. Close, Craig Sale, Keith Baar and Stephane Bermon

. , Fataar , A.B. , Hough , S.F. , & Noakes , T.D. ( 1990 ). Low bone density is an etiologic factor for stress fractures in athletes . Annals of Internal Medicine, 113 , 754 – 759 . PubMed ID: 1978620 doi:10.7326/0003-4819-113-10-754 10.7326/0003-4819-113-10-754 Nattiv , A. , Loucks , A

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Nathanial J. Kapsal, Theresa Dicke, Alexandre J.S. Morin, Diego Vasconcellos, Christophe Maïano, Jane Lee and Chris Lonsdale

hypercholesterolemia OR hyperlipidemia OR dyslipidemia OR ‘high blood pressure’ OR hypertension OR ‘metabolic syndrome’ OR ‘syndrome X’ OR ‘deadly quartet’ OR ‘plurimetabolic syndrome’ OR ‘insulin resistan*’ OR obes* OR overweight OR ‘bone density’ OR ‘bone strength’ OR ‘bone mass’ OR ‘bone mineral density’ OR social

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Senia Smoot Reinert, Allison L. Kinney, Kurt Jackson, Wiebke Diestelkamp and Kimberly Bigelow

. Adams K , O’Shea P , O’Shea KL . Aging: its effects on strength, power, flexibility, and bone density . Strength Condit J . 1999 ; 21 : 65 – 77 25. Duarte M , Zatsiorsky VM . On the fractal properties of natural human standing . Neurosci

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Eric D.B. Goulet, Adrien De La Flore, Félix A. Savoie and Jonathan Gosselin

 al., 2009 ), decrease the risk of decompression sickness in divers ( Gempp et al., 2009 ), and when used on a day-to-day basis, slow or neutralize bone density loss in hypokinetic subjects ( Zorbas et al., 1991 ). An optimal hyperhydration solution should be rapidly integrated into the body fluid pool

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Haixia Guo, Michaela A. Schenkelberg, Jennifer R. O’Neill, Marsha Dowda and Russell R. Pate

does not account for differences in fat mass and fat-free mass. Fat-free mass, which includes muscle mass and bone density, increases at a faster rate than fat mass during early childhood as children approach adiposity rebound ( 24 ), thus decreasing percent body fat. Therefore, greater BMI z score

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Alon Eliakim, Ita Litmanovitz and Dan Nemet

development in the last trimester in utero. The enhancement of bone mass by physical activity was not accompanied by changes in circulating levels of calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, parathyroid hormone, or vitamin D. Therefore, the mechanism for the exercise-induced increase in bone density was