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Rebecca J. Toone and James A. Betts

This study was designed to compare the effects of energy-matched carbohydrate (CHO) and carbohydrate-protein (CHO-PRO) supplements on cycling time-trial performance. Twelve competitive male cyclists and triathletes each completed 2 trials in a randomized and counterbalanced order that were separated by 5–10 d and applied in a double-blind manner. Participants performed a 45-min variable-intensity exercise protocol on a cycle ergometer while ingesting either a 9% CHO solution or a mixture of 6.8% CHO plus 2.2% protein in volumes providing 22 kJ/kg body mass. Participants were then asked to cycle 6 km in the shortest time possible. Blood glucose and lactate concentrations were measured every 15 min during exercise, along with measures of substrate oxidation via indirect calorimetry, heart rate, and ratings of perceived exertion. Mean time to complete the 6-km time trial was 433 ± 21 s in CHO trials and 438 ± 22 s in CHO-PRO trials, which represents a 0.94% (CI: 0.01, 1.86) decrement in performance with the inclusion of protein (p = .048). However, no other variable measured in this study was significantly different between trials. Reducing the quantity of CHO included in a supplement and replacing it with protein may not represent an effective nutritional strategy when the supplement is ingested during exercise. This may reflect the central ergogenic influence of exogenous CHO during such activity.

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Steven K. Malin, Brooke R. Stephens, Carrie G. Sharoff, Todd A. Hagobian, Stuart R. Chipkin and Barry Braun

Exercise and metformin may prevent or delay Type 2 diabetes by, in part, raising the capacity for fat oxidation. Whether the addition of metformin has additive effects on fat oxidation during and after exercise is unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of metformin on substrate oxidation during and after exercise. Using a double-blind, counter-balanced crossover design, substrate oxidation was assessed by indirect calorimetry in 15 individuals taking metformin (2,000 mg/d) and placebo for 8–10 d. Measurements were made during cycle exercise at 5 submaximal cycle workloads, starting at 30% peak work (Wpeak) and increasing by 10% every 8 min to 70% Wpeak. Substrate oxidation was also measured for 50 min postexercise. Differences between conditions were assessed using analysis of variance with repeated measures, and values are reported as M ± SE. During exercise, fat oxidation (0.19 ± 0.03 vs. 0.15 ± 0.01 g/min, p < .01) and percentage of energy from fat (32% ± 3% vs. 28% ± 3%, p < .01) were higher with metformin than with placebo. Postexercise, metformin slightly lowered fat oxidation (0.12 ± 0.02 to 0.10 ± 0.02 g/min, p < .01) compared with placebo. There was an inverse relationship between postexercise fat oxidation and the rate of fat oxidation during exercise (r = –.68, p < .05). In healthy individuals, metformin has opposing actions on fat oxidation during and after exercise. Whether the same effects are evident in insulin-resistant individuals remains to be determined.

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Brett R. Ely, Matthew R. Ely and Samuel N. Cheuvront

The use of caffeine supplements in athletic and military populations has increased in recent years. Excessive caffeine consumption in conjunction with exercise in a hot environment may predispose individuals to heat illness.

Purpose:

To examine heat balance induced by a large dose of caffeine during exercise in a hot environment.

Methods:

Ten men, not heat acclimated and not habitual caffeine users, consumed either caffeine (CAF; 9 mg/kg) or placebo (PLA) before performing cycle-ergometer exercise for 30 min at 50% VO2peak in a 40 °C, 25% relative humidity environment while body temperature (core and skin) and ratings of thermal comfort (TC) were monitored. Heat-exchange variables were calculated using partitional calorimetry and thermometry.

Results:

Mean body temperature (Tb) was higher (p < .05) with CAF (37.18 ± 0.15 °C) than with PLA (36.93 ± 0.15 °C) at the start of exercise. Heat production was slightly higher (~8 W, p < .05) with CAF. There were no differences in heat storage, dry heat gains, TC, or Tb during exercise.

Conclusions:

A caffeine dose of 9 mg/kg does not appreciably alter heat balance during work in a hot environment. The small increase in Tb observed with CAF was undetected by the participants and is unlikely to increase physiological strain sufficiently to affect endurance performance or risk of heat illness.

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Sally A. Sherman, Renee J. Rogers, Kelliann K. Davis, Ryan L. Minster, Seth A. Creasy, Nicole C. Mullarkey, Matthew O’Dell, Patrick Donahue and John M. Jakicic

Background:

Whether the energy cost of vinyasa yoga meets the criteria for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity has not been established.

Purpose:

To compare energy expenditure during acute bouts of vinyasa yoga and 2 walking protocols.

Methods:

Participants (20 males, 18 females) performed 60-minute sessions of vinyasa yoga (YOGA), treadmill walking at a self-selected brisk pace (SELF), and treadmill walking at a pace that matched the heart rate of the YOGA session (HR-Match). Energy expenditure was assessed via indirect calorimetry.

Results:

Energy expenditure was significantly lower in YOGA compared with HR-Match (difference = 79.5 ± 44.3 kcal; P < .001) and SELF (difference = 51.7 ± 62.6 kcal; P < .001), but not in SELF compared with HR-Match (difference = 27.8 ± 72.6 kcal; P = .054). A similar pattern was observed for metabolic equivalents (HR-Match = 4.7 ± 0.8, SELF = 4.4 ± 0.7, YOGA = 3.6 ± 0.6; P < .001). Analyses using only the initial 45 minutes from each of the sessions, which excluded the restorative component of YOGA, showed energy expenditure was significantly lower in YOGA compared with HR-Match (difference = 68.0 ± 40.1 kcal; P < .001) but not compared with SELF (difference = 15.1 ± 48.7 kcal; P = .189).

Conclusions:

YOGA meets the criteria for moderate-intensity physical activity. Thus, YOGA may be a viable form of physical activity to achieve public health guidelines and to elicit health benefits.

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Claudia Ridel Juzwiak, Ciro Winckler, Daniel Paduan Joaquim, Andressa Silva and Marco Tulio de Mello

To compare basal metabolic rate (BMR) predicted by different equations with measured BMR of the Brazilian paralympic track & field team aiming to verify which of these equations is best suited for use in this group. Method: 19 male and 11 female athletes grouped according to functional classification (vision impairment-VI, limb deficiency-LD, and cerebral palsy-CP) had their BMR measured by indirect calorimetry and compared with values predicted by different equations: Cunningham, Owen, Harris-Benedict, FAO/OMS, Dietary Reference Intakes, and Mifflin. Body composition data were obtained by skinfold measurements. Results were reported as mean and standard deviation and analyzed using the Wilcoxon test and Pearson´s Correlation Coefficient. The Root Mean Squared Prediction Error (RMSPE) was calculated to identify the similarity between the estimated and predicted BMR. Results: Mean measured BMR was 25 ± 4.2, 26 ± 2.4, and 26 ± 2.7 kcal/kg of fat free mass/day for VI, LD, and CP, respectively. Owen´s equation had the best predictive performance in comparison with measured BMR for LD and CP athletes, within 104 and 125 kcal/day, while Mifflin’s equation predicted within 146 kcal/day for VI athletes. Conclusion: for this specific group of athletes the Owen and Mifflin equations provided the best predictions of BMR.

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Brian R. Hunt, James D. George, Pat R. Vehrs, A. Garth Fisher and Gilbert W. Fellingham

The purpose of this study was to validate the ability of the 1-mile jog test to predict VO2max in fit teenagers. Forty-one males and 42 females performed the steady-state, submaximal jogging test on an indoor track, along with a maximal graded exercise test (GXT) on a treadmill. Open circuit calorimetry was used during the GXT to measure maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). We generated the following age-specific prediction equation applicable to boys and girls 13–17 years old (n = 83, Radj = .88, SEE = 3.26 ml · kg−1 · min−1): VO2max = 92.91 + 6.50 × gender (0 = female, 1 = male) − 0.141 × body mass (kg) − 1.562 × jog time (min) − 0.125 × heart rate (bpm). Cross-validation results were acceptable (SEEpress = 3.44 ml · kg−1 · min−1). As a field test, the submaximal 1-mile jogging test may alleviate problems associated with pacing, motivation, discouragement, injury, and fatigue that are sometimes associated with maximal effort timed or distance run tests.

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Joel D. Reece, Vaughn Barry, Dana K. Fuller and Jennifer Caputo

Background:

This study determined the validity and sensitivity of the SenseWear armband (SWA) during sedentary and light office duties compared with indirect calorimetry (IC).

Methods:

Participants (N = 22), 30 to 64 years of age, randomly performed 6 conditions for 5 minutes each (ie, supine, sitting no movement, standing no movement, sitting office work, standing office work, walking at 1.0 mph). Steady state for each activity (ie, average for minutes 4 and 5) was analyzed.

Results:

Energy expenditure (EE) for the SWA (1.58 kcal/min) and the IC (1.64 kcal/min) were significantly correlated, r(20) = 0.90, P < .001 and ICC = 0.90, 95% CI (0.699, 0.966). Correlation results for each condition varied in strength, r(20) = 0.53 to 0.83 and ICC = 0.49 to 0.81, but were all significant (P < .05). A significant interaction between measurement method and condition existed (P < .001). The SWA under predicted EE during standing with no movement, sitting office work, and standing office work.

Conclusion:

The SWA and IC EE rates were strongly correlated during sedentary and light activity office behaviors. However, the SWA may under predict EE during office work (standing or sitting) and when standing motionless, making it slightly less sensitive than IC.

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Chinmay Manohar, Shelly McCrady, Ioannis T. Pavlidis and James A. Levine

Background:

Physical activity is important in ill-health. Inexpensive, accurate and precise devices could help assess daily activity. We integrated novel activity-sensing technology into an earpiece used with portable music-players and phones; the physical-activity-sensing earpiece (PASE). Here we examined whether the PASE could accurately and precisely detect physical activity and measure its intensity and thence predict energy expenditure.

Methods:

Experiment 1: 18 subjects wore PASE with different body postures and during graded walking. Energy expenditure was measured using indirect calorimetry. Experiment 2: 8 subjects wore the earpiece and walked a known distance. Experiment 3: 8 subjects wore the earpiece and ‘jogged’ at 3.5mph.

Results:

The earpiece correctly distinguished lying from sitting/standing and distinguished standing still from walking (76/76 cases). PASE output showed excellent sequential increases with increased in walking velocity and energy expenditure (r 2 > .9). The PASE prediction of free-living walking velocity was, 2.5 ± (SD) 0.18 mph c.f. actual velocity, 2.5 ± 0.16 mph. The earpiece successfully distinguished walking at 3.5 mph from ‘jogging’ at the same velocity (P < .001).

Conclusions:

The subjects tolerated the earpiece well and were comfortable wearing it. The PASE can therefore be used to reliably monitor free-living physical activity and its associated energy expenditure.

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Hermann-J. Engels, John C. Wirth, Sueda Celik and Jodee L. Dorsey

This study assessed the influence of caffeine on metabolic and cardiovascular functions during sustained, light intensity cycling and at rest. Eight healthy, recreationally active adults participated in four randomly assigned, double-blind experimental trials of 60 min upright seated cycle exercise (30% VO2max) or equivalent rest with caffeine (5 mg ⋅ kg−1) or placebo consumed 60 min prior to data collection. Gas exchange was measured by open-circuit spirom-etry indirect calorimetry. Global blood flow was evaluated by thoracic impedance cardiography and arterial blood pressure by auscultation. A repeated measures ANOVA indicated that pretrial caffeine increased oxygen uptake and energy expenditure rate (p < 0.05) but did not change respiratory exchange ratio. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure were elevated following caffeine intake (p < 0.05). Cardiac output, heart rate, stroke volume, and systemic vascular resistance were not significantly different between caffeine and placebo sessions. For each of the metabolic and hemodynamic variables examined, the effects of caffeine were similar during constant-load, light intensity cycling and at rest. These data illustrate that caffeine's mild thermogenic influence can be mediated without a major shift in substrate oxidation mixture. Caffeine at this dosage level alters cardiovascular dynamics by augmenting arterial blood pressure.

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W. Daniel Schmidt, Gerald C. Hyner, Roseann M. Lyle, Donald Corrigan, Gerald Bottoms and Christopher L. Melby

This study examined resting metabolic rate (RMR) and thermic effect of a meal (TEM) among athletes who had participated in long-term anaerobic or aerobic exercise. Nine collegiate wrestlers were matched for age, weight, and fat-free weight with 9 collegiate swimmers. Preliminary testing included maximal oxygen consumption, maximal anaerobic capacity (MAnC) for both the arms and the legs, and percent body fat. On two separate occasions, RMR and TEM were measured using indirect calorimetry. VO2max was significantly higher in the swimmers while MAnC was significantly higher in the wrestlers for both the arms and the legs. RMR adjusted for fat-free weight was not significantly different between groups. The differences in total and percentage of TEM between the groups were not statistically significant, and there were no differences in baseline thyroid hormones. These data suggest that despite significant differences in VO2max and WAnT values following long-term aerobic and anaerobic exercise training, resting energy expenditure does not differ between these college athletes.