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Lance Ratcliff, Sareen S. Gropper, B. Douglas White, David M. Shannon and Kevin W. Huggins

This study compared type of habitual exercise and meal form on diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) in 29 men age 19–28 yr. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) and DIT response to solid-meal (bar) vs. liquid-meal (shake) ingestion were measured via indirect calorimetry; classifications were sedentary (n = 9), endurance trained (n = 11), or resistance trained (n = 9). Height, weight, and body composition (using bioelectrical impedance) were measured for each subject. Energy expenditure was determined before and every 30 min after meal consumption for 210 min. RMR was significantly (p = .045) higher in the endurance- and resistance-trained groups. However, when expressed per kilogram fat-free mass (FFM; relative RMR), differences were not significant. Both DIT (kcal/min) and relative DIT (kcal · min−1 · kg FFM−1) significantly increased with time (p < .0001) from RMR for each meal form. There was no significant exercise-group effect on DIT or relative DIT. There was a significant (p = .012) effect of meal form on DIT; shakes elicited a higher DIT. This significant difference was not found for relative DIT. There was a significant interaction between group and meal form for DIT (p = .008) and relative DIT (p < .0001). Shakes elicited a significantly greater DIT (p = .0002) and relative DIT (p = .0001) in the resistance-trained group. In the sedentary group, relative DIT from shakes was significantly lower than from bars (p = .019). In conclusion, habitual exercise appears to increase RMR, and meal form may impart changes in relative DIT depending on exercise status.

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Akiko Sato, Yoshimitsu Shimoyama, Tomoji Ishikawa and Nobuko Murayama

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of high-intensity physical activity during training on the biochemical status of thiamin and riboflavin in athletes. Thiamin and riboflavin concentrations in whole blood of a group of 19 athletes (6 men and 13 women) were measured during a low-intensity preparatory period and compared with measurements taken during a high-intensity training period. Additional variables measured included anthropometric characteristics, estimated energy expenditure during swim training, distance covered, resting energy expenditure obtained by indirect calorimetry, estimated energy requirement per day, and dietary intake of energy, thiamin, and riboflavin estimated from 3-day food records. For both male and female subjects, no major changes were observed in anthropometric characteristics or dietary intake, but energy expenditure during swim training per day significantly increased in the intensive-training period (496 ± 0 kcal in the preparation period compared with 995 ± 96 kcal in the intensive-training period for male subjects [p < .001] and 361 ± 27 kcal vs. 819 ± 48 kcal, respectively, for female subjects [p < .001]). Blood thiamin concentration decreased significantly during the intensive-training period compared with the preparation period (41 ± 6 ng/ml decreased to 36 ± 3 ng/ml for male subjects [p = .048], and 38 ± 10 ng/ml decreased to 31 ± 5 ng/ml for female subjects [p = .004]); however, the concentration of riboflavin was unchanged. These results suggest that intense training affects thiamin concentration, but not riboflavin concentration, in the whole blood of college swimmers.

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Jung-Min Lee, Pedro F. Saint-Maurice, Youngwon Kim, Glenn A. Gaesser and Gregory Welk

Background:

The assessment of physical activity (PA) and energy expenditure (EE) in youth is complicated by inherent variability in growth and maturation during childhood and adolescence. This study provides descriptive summaries of the EE of a diverse range of activities in children ages 7 to 13.

Methods:

A sample of 105 7- to 13-year-old children (boys: 57%, girls: 43%, and Age: 9.9 ± 1.9) performed a series of 12 activities from a pool of 24 activities while being monitored with an indirect calorimetry system.

Results:

Across physical activities, averages of VO2 ml·kg·min-1, VO2 L·min-1, EE, and METs ranged from 3.3 to 53.7 ml·kg·min-1, from 0.15 to 3.2 L·min-1, from 0.7 to 15.9 kcal·min-1, 1.5 MET to 7.8 MET, respectively.

Conclusions:

The energy costs of the activities varied by age, sex, and BMI status reinforcing the need to consider adjustments when examining the relative intensity of PA in youth.

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Leslie Peacock, Allan Hewitt, David A. Rowe and Rona Sutherland

Purpose:

The study investigated (a) walking intensity (stride rate and energy expenditure) under three speed instructions; (b) associations between stride rate, age, height, and walking intensity; and (c) synchronization between stride rate and music tempo during overground walking in a population of healthy older adults.

Methods:

Twenty-nine participants completed 3 treadmill-walking trials and 3 overground-walking trials at 3 self-selected speeds. Treadmill VO2 was measured using indirect calorimetry. Stride rate and music tempo were recorded during overground-walking trials.

Results:

Mean stride rate exceeded minimum thresholds for moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) under slow (111.41 ± 11.93), medium (118.17 ± 11.43), and fast (123.79 ± 11.61) instructions. A multilevel model showed that stride rate, age, and height have a significant effect (p < .01) on walking intensity.

Conclusions:

Healthy older adults achieve MVPA with stride rates that fall below published minima for MVPA. Stride rate, age, and height are significant predictors of energy expenditure in this population. Music can be a useful way to guide walking cadence.

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Barbara E. Ainsworth, Robert G. McMurray and Susan K. Veazey

The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of two submaximal exercise tests, the Sitting-Chair Step Test (Smith & Gilligan. 1983) and the Modified Step Test (Amundsen, DeVahl, & Ellingham, 1989) to predict peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) in 28 adults ages 60 to 85 years. VO2 peak was measured by indirect calorimetry during a treadmill maximal graded exercise test (VO2 peak, range 11.6–31.1 ml · kg −l · min−1). In each of the submaximal tests, VO2 was predicted by plotting stage-by-stage submaximal heart rate (HR) and perceived exertion (RPE) data against VO2 for each stage and extrapolating the data to respective age-predicted maximal HR or RPE values. In the Sitting-Chair Step Test (n = 23), no significant differences were observed between measured and predicted VO2 peak values (p > .05). However, predicted VO2 peak values from the HR were 4.3 ml · kg−1 · min−1 higher than VO2 peak values predicted from the RPE data (p < .05). In the Modified Step Test (n = 22), no significant differences were observed between measured and predicted VO2 peak values (p > .05). Predictive accuracy was modest, explaining 49–78% of the variance in VO2 peak. These data suggest that the Sitting-Chair Step Test and the Modified Step Test have moderate validity in predicting VO2 peak in older men and women.

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Sally A. Sherman, Renee J. Rogers, Kelliann K. Davis, Ryan L. Minster, Seth A. Creasy, Nicole C. Mullarkey, Matthew O’Dell, Patrick Donahue and John M. Jakicic

Background:

Whether the energy cost of vinyasa yoga meets the criteria for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity has not been established.

Purpose:

To compare energy expenditure during acute bouts of vinyasa yoga and 2 walking protocols.

Methods:

Participants (20 males, 18 females) performed 60-minute sessions of vinyasa yoga (YOGA), treadmill walking at a self-selected brisk pace (SELF), and treadmill walking at a pace that matched the heart rate of the YOGA session (HR-Match). Energy expenditure was assessed via indirect calorimetry.

Results:

Energy expenditure was significantly lower in YOGA compared with HR-Match (difference = 79.5 ± 44.3 kcal; P < .001) and SELF (difference = 51.7 ± 62.6 kcal; P < .001), but not in SELF compared with HR-Match (difference = 27.8 ± 72.6 kcal; P = .054). A similar pattern was observed for metabolic equivalents (HR-Match = 4.7 ± 0.8, SELF = 4.4 ± 0.7, YOGA = 3.6 ± 0.6; P < .001). Analyses using only the initial 45 minutes from each of the sessions, which excluded the restorative component of YOGA, showed energy expenditure was significantly lower in YOGA compared with HR-Match (difference = 68.0 ± 40.1 kcal; P < .001) but not compared with SELF (difference = 15.1 ± 48.7 kcal; P = .189).

Conclusions:

YOGA meets the criteria for moderate-intensity physical activity. Thus, YOGA may be a viable form of physical activity to achieve public health guidelines and to elicit health benefits.

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John M. Schuna Jr., Daniel S. Hsia, Catrine Tudor-Locke and Neil M. Johannsen

Background: Active workstations offer the potential for augmenting energy expenditure (EE) in sedentary occupations. However, comparisons of EE during pedal and treadmill desk usage at self-selected intensities are lacking. Methods: A sample of 16 adult participants (8 men and 8 women; 33.9 [7.1] y, 22.5 [2.7] kg/m2) employed in sedentary occupations had their EE measured using indirect calorimetry during 4 conditions: (1) seated rest, (2) seated typing in a traditional office chair, (3) self-paced pedaling on a pedal desk while typing, and (4) self-paced walking on a treadmill desk while typing. Results: For men and women, self-paced pedal and treadmill desk typing significantly increased EE above seated typing (pedal desk: +1.20 to 1.28 kcal/min and treadmill desk: +1.43 to 1.93 kcal/min, P < .001). In men, treadmill desk typing (3.46 [0.19] kcal/min) elicited a significantly higher mean EE than pedal desk typing (2.73 [0.21] kcal/min, P < .001). No significant difference in EE was observed between treadmill desk typing (2.68 [0.19] kcal/min) and pedal desk typing among women (2.52 [0.21] kcal/min). Conclusions: Self-paced treadmill desk usage elicited significantly higher EE than self-paced pedal desk usage in men but not in women. Both pedal and treadmill desk usage at self-selected intensities elicited approximate 2-fold increases in EE above what would typically be expected during traditional seated office work.

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Nirjhar Dutta and Mark A. Pereira

Background:

The objective of this study was to estimate the mean difference in energy expenditure (EE) in healthy adults between playing active video games (AVGs) compared with traditional video games (TVGs) or rest.

Methods:

A systematic search was conducted on Ovid MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge, and Academic Search Premier between 1998 and April 2012 for relevant keywords, yielding 15 studies. EE and heart rate (HR) data were extracted, and random effects meta-analysis was performed.

Results:

EE during AVG play was 1.81 (95% CI, 1.29–2.34; I 2 = 94.2%) kcal/kg/hr higher, or about 108 kcal higher per hour for a 60-kg person, compared with TVG play. Mean HR was 21 (95% CI, 13.7–28.3; I 2 = 93.4%) beats higher per minute during AVG play compared with TVG play. There was wide variation in the EE and HR estimates across studies because different games were evaluated. Overall metabolic equivalent associated with AVG play was 2.62 (95% CI, 2.25–3.00; I 2 = 99.2%), equivalent to a light activity level. Most studies had low risk of bias due to proper study design and use of indirect calorimetry to measure EE.

Conclusion:

AVGs may be used to replace sedentary screen time (eg, television watching or TVG play) with light activity in healthy adults.

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Brian R. Hunt, James D. George, Pat R. Vehrs, A. Garth Fisher and Gilbert W. Fellingham

The purpose of this study was to validate the ability of the 1-mile jog test to predict VO2max in fit teenagers. Forty-one males and 42 females performed the steady-state, submaximal jogging test on an indoor track, along with a maximal graded exercise test (GXT) on a treadmill. Open circuit calorimetry was used during the GXT to measure maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). We generated the following age-specific prediction equation applicable to boys and girls 13–17 years old (n = 83, Radj = .88, SEE = 3.26 ml · kg−1 · min−1): VO2max = 92.91 + 6.50 × gender (0 = female, 1 = male) − 0.141 × body mass (kg) − 1.562 × jog time (min) − 0.125 × heart rate (bpm). Cross-validation results were acceptable (SEEpress = 3.44 ml · kg−1 · min−1). As a field test, the submaximal 1-mile jogging test may alleviate problems associated with pacing, motivation, discouragement, injury, and fatigue that are sometimes associated with maximal effort timed or distance run tests.

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Joel D. Reece, Vaughn Barry, Dana K. Fuller and Jennifer Caputo

Background:

This study determined the validity and sensitivity of the SenseWear armband (SWA) during sedentary and light office duties compared with indirect calorimetry (IC).

Methods:

Participants (N = 22), 30 to 64 years of age, randomly performed 6 conditions for 5 minutes each (ie, supine, sitting no movement, standing no movement, sitting office work, standing office work, walking at 1.0 mph). Steady state for each activity (ie, average for minutes 4 and 5) was analyzed.

Results:

Energy expenditure (EE) for the SWA (1.58 kcal/min) and the IC (1.64 kcal/min) were significantly correlated, r(20) = 0.90, P < .001 and ICC = 0.90, 95% CI (0.699, 0.966). Correlation results for each condition varied in strength, r(20) = 0.53 to 0.83 and ICC = 0.49 to 0.81, but were all significant (P < .05). A significant interaction between measurement method and condition existed (P < .001). The SWA under predicted EE during standing with no movement, sitting office work, and standing office work.

Conclusion:

The SWA and IC EE rates were strongly correlated during sedentary and light activity office behaviors. However, the SWA may under predict EE during office work (standing or sitting) and when standing motionless, making it slightly less sensitive than IC.