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Kentaro Chino and Hideyuki Takahashi

, skins, subcutaneous tissue, fascia, ligaments, joint capsule, and cartilage. 3 When resting muscles are passively stretched, passive resistance is induced by several structures within muscles, including actin and myosin filaments, sarcomere cytoskeletons, and connective tissues. 4 As variations in

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Keith Baar

.1100180403 McAlindon , T.E. , Nuite , M. , Krishnan , N. , Ruthazer , R. , Price , L.L. , Burstein , D. , . . . Flechsenhar , K. ( 2011 ). Change in knee osteoarthritis cartilage detected by delayed gadolinium enhanced magnetic resonance imaging following treatment with collagen hydrolysate: A

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Michelle A. Sandrey, Yu-Jen Chang and Jean L. McCrory

tissue tolerance, impact accelerations can cause a number of musculoskeletal overuse injuries. Such injuries include SFx, 13 articular cartilage, joint degeneration, 14 and osteoarthritis. 14 Although the body’s structures are able to attenuate some of the impact accelerations (eg, calcaneal fat pad

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Joseph Hannon, J. Craig Garrison, Sharon Wang-Price, Shiho Goto, Angellyn Grondin, James Bothwell and Curtis Bush

to use compensatory strategies to “off-load” their involved knee during a bilateral squat in the early rehabilitation process. 13 Over time, this continued off-loading has been shown to result in an underloading of cartilage and can contribute to posttraumatic osteoarthritis (OA). 14 , 15 In

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Anna Lina Rahlf, Klaus-Michael Braumann and Astrid Zech

Osteoarthritis is one of the most frequent musculoskeletal disorders in older adults. 1 , 2 The current global prevalence of knee osteoarthritis (OA) is 3.8%, and women are affected more often (4.8%) than men. 3 In the past, OA was generally known as degenerative cartilage decrease. Today, OA is

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Kimmery Migel and Erik Wikstrom

gait in those with CAI. 6 These maladaptive gait biomechanics are thought to increase the risk of subsequent ankle sprains 8 and alter talar cartilage loading patterns leading to the development of posttraumatic osteoarthritis. 3 Neuromuscular control and balance training are frequently incorporated

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Graeme L. Close, Craig Sale, Keith Baar and Stephane Bermon

, consumption of 10 g of hydrolyzed collagen in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study in athletes decreased knee pain from standing and walking ( Clark et al., 2008 ). The decrease in knee pain could be the result of an improvement in collagen synthesis of the cartilage within the knee since

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Emmanuel Gomes Ciolac, José Messias Rodrigues da Silva and Rodolfo Paula Vieira

. 65 , 67 This inflammatory process persists for many years and typically affects multiple joints throughout the body (hands and body support joints are commonly affected by OA, whereas any joint may be affected by RA) and can cause damage to cartilage, bones, tendons, and ligaments. 65 , 66 The

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Kerry E. Costello, Janie L. Astephen Wilson and Cheryl L. Hubley-Kozey

.M. , Wiebenga , E.G. , Stratford , P.W. , Beattie , K.A. , Totterman , S. , Tamez-Pena , J.G. , . . . Maly , M.R. ( 2017 ). Baseline knee adduction moment interacts with body mass index to predict loss of medial tibial cartilage volume over 2.5 years in knee Osteoarthritis . Journal of Orthopaedic

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Harsh H. Buddhadev, Daniel L. Crisafulli, David N. Suprak and Jun G. San Juan

Knee osteoarthritis (OA) affects about 30% of adults over the age of 60 years. 1 This condition is characterized by progressive degeneration of the articular cartilage in the knee joint and is accompanied by joint pain, stiffness, diminished sensorimotor function, and discomfort when performing