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Cameron J. Powden, Matthew C. Hoch and Johanna M. Hoch

in then-test scores and preoperation scores for both the SF-6D and EQ-5D. Nagl and Farin 18 189 patients Inclusion: chronic low back pain Unspecified rehabilitation Prerehabilitation and postrehabilitation Then-test (postrehabilitation) Self-devised questionnaire with 1 question to address pain

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Claudia G. Levenig, Michael Kellmann, Jens Kleinert, Johanna Belz, Tobias Hesselmann, Jahan Heidari and Monika I. Hasenbring

chronic low back pain. 5 Moreover, Cane et al 38 showed that patients with low levels of avoidance and high activity reported better functioning, which could apply to the present study. Presumably, cognitive strategies, such as recognizing pain as a signal to change something and being able to change

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Manuel Trinidad-Fernández, Manuel González-Sánchez and Antonio I. Cuesta-Vargas

evidence of altered lumbar connective tissue structure in human subjects with chronic low back pain . BMC Musculoskelet Disord . 2009 ; 10 ( 1 ): 151 . doi:10.1186/1471-2474-10-151 10.1186/1471-2474-10-151 19958536

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Hannah Horris, Barton E. Anderson, R. Curtis Bay and Kellie C. Huxel Bliven

 al . Postural function of the diaphragm in persons with and without chronic low back pain . J Orthop Sports Phys Ther . 2012 ; 42 ( 4 ): 352 – 362 . PubMed ID: 22236541 doi:10.2519/jospt.2012.3830 22236541 10.2519/jospt.2012.3830 6 O’Sullivan PB , Beales DJ . Changes in pelvic floor and diaphragm

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Johanna M. Hoch, Megan N. Houston, Shelby E. Baez and Matthew C. Hoch

literature has examined effective intervention strategies to decrease FAB in this population. 24 A plethora of literature has examined these beliefs in participants with chronic low-back pain and effective intervention strategies to address FAB in this population. 25 Clinicians and future researchers

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Neil Maguire, Paul Chesterton and Cormac Ryan

student attitudes towards patients with chronic low back pain improve during training? A cross-sectional study . BMC Med Educ . 2012 ; 12 ( 1 ): 10 . doi:10.1186/1472-6920-12-10 10.1186/1472-6920-12-10 22429317 20. Airaksinen O , Brox JI , Cedraschi C , et al . Chapter 4 European guidelines

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Mohammad Reza Pourahmadi, Ismail Ebrahimi Takamjani, Shapour Jaberzadeh, Javad Sarrafzadeh, Mohammad Ali Sanjari, Rasool Bagheri and Morteza Taghipour

in elderly people. 15 As a result, studying STS is encouraged by the fact that this maneuver is frequently described as painful by patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) and is often addressed in rehabilitation programs. 16 Normal spinal mobility is required for optimal performance of daily

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Mark A. Sutherlin, L. Colby Mangum, Shawn Russell, Susan Saliba, Jay Hertel and Joe M. Hart

:10.3171/2013.9.SPINE13344 10.3171/2013.9.SPINE13344 24206036 19. Waddell G , Newton M , Henderson I , Somerville D , Main CJ . A Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ) and the role of fear-avoidance beliefs in chronic low back pain and disability . Pain . 1993 ; 52 ( 2 ): 157

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Ítalo Ribeiro Lemes, Xuemei Sui, Stacy L. Fritz, Paul F. Beattie, Carl J. Lavie, Bruna Camilo Turi-Lynch and Steven N. Blair

: 23155222 doi:10.1136/annrheumdis-2012-202075 23155222 10.1136/annrheumdis-2012-202075 20. Duque IL , Parra JH , Duvallet A . Aerobic fitness and limiting factors of maximal performance in chronic low back pain patients . J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil . 2009 ; 22 ( 2 ): 113 – 119 . PubMed ID

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Kayla E. Boehm, Blaine C. Long, Mitchell T. Millar and Kevin C. Miller

method in the acute phase of ACL reconstruction: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study . Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc . 2016 ; 50 : 628 – 634 . PubMed ID: 27784622 doi:10.1016/j.aott.2016.03.005 27784622 10.1016/j.aott.2016.03.005 3. Nelson NL . Kinesio taping for chronic low back pain: a