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Gabrielle G. Gilmer, Jessica K. Washington, Jeffrey R. Dugas, James R. Andrews and Gretchen D. Oliver

per season, with 7.8% of these classified as major injuries. 1 This statistic not only emphasizes the importance of reducing injury in these athletes but also highlights the need for methods in which sports medicine staff and coaches alike may easily identify athletes at risk for injury. Although the

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Masatoshi Nakamura, Shigeru Sato, Ryosuke Kiyono, Nobushige Takahashi and Tomoichi Yoshida

protocols. Therefore, our results suggested that the acute effect of SS on ROM and shear elastic modulus did not depend on the rest duration between sets of SS. In clinical setting, clinicians and coaches should focus on the duration and intensity of SS intervention rather than the rest duration

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Mattias Eckerman, Kjell Svensson, Gunnar Edman and Marie Alricsson

knowledge among players, coaches, and medical staff about stress having a possible association with muscle injuries. Moreover, it is especially important to target players with high-stress susceptibility as well as allow for preventive measures for players to reduce stress susceptibility. Acknowledgment The

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Deepika Singla and M. Ejaz Hussain

protocol inculcated the use of medicine balls of different weights, which are inexpensive tools to improve strength without any need of free weights or machines. Coaches and athletic trainers are, thus, encouraged to ingrain MBPT in the training regimes of the overhead athletes. Acknowledgments The authors

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Stephen M. Glass, Alessandro Napoli, Elizabeth D. Thompson, Iyad Obeid and Carole A. Tucker

The balance error scoring system (BESS) is a human-scored, field-based balance test used in cases of suspected concussion. Recently developed instrumented alternatives to human scoring carry substantial advantages over traditional testing, but thus far report relatively abstract outcomes that may not be useful to clinicians or coaches. In contrast, the automated assessment of postural stability (AAPS) is a computerized system that tabulates error events in accordance with the original description of the BESS. This study compared AAPS and human-based BESS scores. A total of 25 healthy adults performed the modified BESS. Tests were scored twice each by 3 human raters and the computerized system. Interrater (between human) and intermethod (AAPS vs human) agreement (interclass correlation coefficient2,1) were calculated alongside Bland–Altman limits of agreement. Interrater analyses were significant (P < .01) and demonstrated good to excellent agreement. Intermethod agreement analyses were significant (P < .01), with agreement ranging from poor to excellent. Computerized scores were equivalent across rating occasions. Limits of agreement ranges for AAPS versus the human average exceeded the average limits of agreement ranges between human raters. Coaches and clinicians may consider a system such as AAPS to automate balance testing while maintaining the familiarity of human-based scoring, although scores should not yet be considered interchangeable with those of a human rater.

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Andreas Ivarsson, Urban Johnson and Leslie Podlog

Context:

Athletes participating in sport are exposed to a high injury risk. Previous research has found a great number of risk factors (both physiological and psychological) that could increase injury risk.1 One limitation in previous studies is that few have considered the complex interaction between psychological factors in their research design.

Objective:

To study whether personality, stress, and coping predicted injury occurrence in an elite soccer population based on a hypothesized model.

Design:

Prospective.

Participants:

56 (n = 38 male, n = 18 female) Swedish Premiere League soccer players were selected based on convenience sampling.

Intervention:

Participants completed 4 questionnaires including the Swedish Universities Scales of Personality,2 Life Events Survey for Collegiate Athletes,3 and Brief COPE4 during the initial questionnaire administration. Subsequent to the first meeting, participants also completed the Hassle and Uplift Scale5 once per wk for a 13-wk period throughout the competitive season.

Main Outcome Measures:

A path analysis was conducted examining the influence of personality traits (ie, trait anxiety), state-level stressors (ie, negative-life-event stress and daily hassles), and coping on injury frequency.

Results:

Results of the path analysis indicated that trait anxiety, negative-life-event stress, and daily hassle were significant predictors of injury among professional soccer players, accounting for 24% of the variance.

Conclusion:

The findings highlight the need for athletes, coaches, and medical practitioners to attempt to reduce state-level stressors, especially daily hassles, in minimizing injury risk. Educating and training athletes and coaches in proactive stress-management techniques appears warranted.

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Ross H. Sanders and Peter C. Owens

Many golf coaches refer to a focal point or “hub” of a golf swing and encourage players to imagine the clubhead rotating about this point. The purpose of this study was to locate the hub of the swings of elite (handicaps 0–5) and novice golfers. Six novice and six elite players (all male) each performed 10 swings with the 3-wood provided. Motions of reflective markers attached to the vertex and chin of the subject and three points along the shaft of the club were recorded on videotape. The position of the hub at sampled instants during the swing was defined by the intersection of normals to the clubhead path. Among elite players the hub was not fixed and the pattern of hub movement was consistent. The radius of the hub to the clubhead reached a maximum near impact. Novice players tended to achieve maximum radius after impact and the hub patterns were inconsistent.

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Monna Arvinen-Barrow, Brian Hemmings, Caryl A. Becker and Lynn Booth

To gain an insight to the existing suggestions and recommendations on chartered physiotherapists’ preferred methods of delivery for further training in sport psychology.

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Brendan Burkett, Rebecca Mellifont and Bruce Mason

This study compared the components of the 15-m swimming start for 20 international male Olympic and Paralympic swimmers. The time, distance, and velocity components for freestyle swimming were measured. There were significantly (p < .05) different absolute and relative swim start measures among the swimming groups. Using stepwise regression three variables significantly influenced the start to 15-m time: (i) underwater velocity, (ii) free swim velocity, and (iii) whether the swimmer had cerebral palsy. This new knowledge provides useful information for swimmers and coaches on which components to prioritize, along with the practical applications of improving the streamline position to increase underwater velocity and to ensure that the transition from underwater to surface breakout occurs at the optimal time for maximum free swim velocity.

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Peter J. Worthington, Mark A. King and Craig A. Ranson

The aim of this study was to identify the key aspects of technique that characterize the fastest bowlers. Kinematic data were collected for 20 elite male fast bowlers with 11 kinematic parameters calculated, describing elements of fast bowling technique that have previously been linked to ball release speed. Four technique variables were identified as being the best predictors of ball release speed, explaining 74% of the observed variation in ball release speed. The results indicate that the fastest bowlers have a quicker run-up and maintain a straighter knee throughout the front foot contact phase. The fastest bowlers were also observed to exhibit larger amounts of upper trunk flexion up to ball release and to delay the onset of arm circumduction. This study identifies those technique variables that best explain the differences in release speeds among fast bowlers. These results are likely to be useful in both the coaching and talent identification of fast bowlers.