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Don Vinson, Polly Christian, Vanessa Jones, Craig Williams and Derek M. Peters

Inclusive and equitable processes are important to the development of sports coaching. The aim of this study was to explore how well UK coach education meets the needs of women sports coaches to make recommendations to further enhance the engagement of, and support for, aspiring and existing women coaches. The national governing bodies (NGBs) of four sports (Cycling, Equestrian, Gymnastics and Rowing) volunteered to participate and semistructured interviews using the tenants of Appreciative Inquiry (AI) within a Self Determination Theory (SDT) framework were undertaken with 23 coaches, eight coach educators and five NGB officers. The data themed into an analytic structure derived from SDT comprising ‘Autonomy: Freedom to coach’, ‘Coaching competence’, and ‘Relatedness and belonging’. The coaches perceived potential benefit from enhanced relatedness and belonging within their sport with the findings suggesting that NGBs should embrace coach-led decision making in terms of the developmental topics which are important and should adopt the development of competence, rather than assessing technical understanding, as the foundational principle of more inclusive coach education. Future research should investigate the impact of the inclusive practices which are recommended within this investigation such as the softening of the technocratic focus of formal coach education.

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Erica Pasquini and Melissa Thompson

traditionally volunteers, they often have the least amount of coach training. In fact, a large majority of youth-sport coaches have received no formal coach education. This lack of education combined with the growing competitive youth-sport culture creates a hot spot for the CEC’s occurrence. Simply stated

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Koon Teck Koh, Wenxiang Foo, Goken Sakamoto and Adrian Low

The demand for certified sports coaches in Singapore is high, especially from the schools and private sectors. This trend is in line with the significant global growth of the vocation of sports coaching (Taylor & Garratt, 2013). The purpose of this paper is to provide an informal review of the state of coaching and coach education in Singapore, by addressing three main themes: (1) provide an overview of the evolution of the Singaporean coaching system since the late 1990s, (2) describe examples of identified ground up initiatives from various stakeholders within the coaching ecosystem and (3) draw conclusions from existing literature and provide suggestions on how coach education systems can be further developed. The foundation of the current coaching system was established in the late 1990s with the introduction of the National Coaching Accreditation Program (NCAP) and it is still the benchmark for the coaching practice in Singapore today. The basic NCAP is broken down to a theory and technical component which is administered by the Singapore Sports Council (SSC) and the National Sports Associations (NSAs) respectively. The SSC had embarked on various initiatives over the years to ensure that more Singaporeans have access to quality coaching.

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Fernando Santos, Martin Camiré, Dany J. MacDonald, Henrique Campos, Manuel Conceição and Patricia Silva

Positive youth development (PYD) is a framework that has been widely used within sport research to outline sport’s potential as a developmental context. Past research has indicated how coaches play important roles in facilitating PYD through sport and yet, PYD-related material remains largely absent from mainstream coach education courses (CEC). The purpose of the current study was to examine youth sport coaches’ perspective on PYD and its worth in mainstream coach education courses. The participants were twelve Portuguese youth field hockey coaches (one female and eleven males) who coached athletes between four and eighteen years of age. Findings indicated that coaches valued PYD within their coaching philosophy, but were also highly motivated by performance and improving their players’ motor skills. The participants deemed that CEC generally lack PYD-related material, adding that practical strategies informed by the PYD approach should be inherently part of CEC delivery. The findings have practical implications for coach educators, indicating a need and a desire on the part of coaches to have PYD-related content in mainstream CEC.

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Zoe Avner, Pirkko Markula and Jim Denison

Drawing on a modified version of Foucault’s (1972) analysis of discursive formations, we selected key coach education texts in Canada to examine what discourses currently shape effective coaching in Canada in order to detect what choices Canadian coaches have to know about “being an effective coach.” We then compared the most salient aspects of our reading to the International Sport Coaching Framework. Our Foucauldian reading of the two Canadian coach education websites showed that the present set of choices for coaches to practice “effectively” is narrow and that correspondingly the potential for change and innovation is limited in scope. Our comparison with the International Sport Coaching Framework, however, showed more promise as we found that its focus on the development of coach competences allowed for different coaching knowledges and coaching aims than a narrow focus on performance and results. We then conclude this Insights Paper by offering some comments on the implications of our Foucauldian reading as well as some suggestions to address our concerns about the dominance of certain knowledges and the various effects of this dominance for athletes, coaches, coach development and the coaching profession at large.

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Diana Deek, Penny Werthner, Kyle J. Paquette and Diane Culver

This study examines the impact of a coach education program on coach learning and perceived changes to coaching practices, while situating this episodic learning experience within a lifelong-learning perspective. Three sets of in-depth interviews were conducted with 10 coaches taking part in one of three competition-development modules within Canada’s National Coaching Certification Program (Coaching and Leading Effectively, Managing Conflict, and Psychology of Performance). It was found that (a) the coaches’ biographies varied widely, (b) all of the coaches reported learning from the modules, (c) eight of ten coaches reported a change in their coaching practices as a result of participation in one of the modules, and (d) the coaches credited a combination of mediated, unmediated, and internal learning situations for their learning before and after the modules. These findings suggest that a large-scale coach education program can have an impact on coaches when the program takes a lifelong-learning perspective and integrates constructivist principles into its design and delivery.

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Kyle J. Paquette, Aman Hussain, Pierre Trudel and Martin Camiré

Building on Hussain et al.’s (2012) analysis of Triathlon Canada’s constructivist-informed coach education program from the perspective of the program designer, this case study explored the structure and initial implementation of the program, as well as coaches’ perspectives of their journey to certification. Through a series of document analyses and interviews with the inaugural group of coach participants (N = 4), strategies for the application of constructivist principles are presented and discussed in relation to the coaches’ perspectives and coach development literature. More specifically, through its innovative use of learning activities and formative evaluation and assessment strategies, the program is shown to place considerable emphasis on coaches’ biographies, refection, and representation of learning. Finally, recommendations for coach educators are presented.

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Anita Lee and Jarrod Schenewark

The purpose of this presentation is to introduce the compliance information of the National Council for Accreditation of Coaching Education (NCACE) accreditation guidelines and standards, to provide coaching educators with the information which will help their portfolio preparation when applying to the NCACE accreditation. The target audience of this presentation is coaching educators, especially those who are interested in the NCACE accreditation. The following information will be presented: (a) statistics of compliance rate for the NCACE accreditation in the past four years by guidelines and standards; (b) the reasons of complying or not complying by each guideline and standard; (c) materials and artifacts that readers and the Portfolio Review Coordinator are looking for; and (d) common mistakes when preparing portfolios. Question and answer session will be included at the end of this presentation.

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Joe W. Burden Jr. and Glenn W. Lambie

As social and cultural diversity increases in the United States, coaches frequently interact with athletes from a wide range of backgrounds. Therefore, it would be useful if coaches had established guidelines for best practices to support their socially and ethically responsible work with athletes. However, coaching organizations have not published best practice standards specifically for coaches’ work with socially and culturally diverse athletes. This article proposes Sociocultural Competencies for Sport Coaches (SCSC) to support positive coach-athlete relationships. Specifically, the paper (a) reviews standards for social and cultural competencies used in similar professions, (b) introduces SCSC to the field of coaching education, and (c) presents competencies, standards, and benchmarks to guide the implementation of SCSC with diverse athletes.

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Philip Sullivan, Kyle J. Paquette, Nicholas L. Holt and Gordon A. Bloom

This research was supported by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council.

The purposes of this study were to examine how coaching context and level of coaching education were related to coaching efficacy and, subsequently, how coaching efficacy was related to perceived leadership behaviors in youth sports. One hundred and seventy-two youth sport coaches completed the Coaching Efficacy Scale and Revised Leadership Scale for Sports. Structural equation modeling revealed that coach education significantly affected the multidimensional construct of coaching efficacy whereas coaching context did not. Coaching efficacy predicted perceived leadership behaviors comprising training and instruction, positive feedback, social support, and situational consideration. These findings question the issue of coaching efficacy as a factor that may distinguish between coaches at different organizational contexts but highlight the importance of coach education training for improving coaching efficacy in youth sport.