biomechanical factor(s) that could differentiate fall and nonfall within the LOB class, as well as walkover and skate over within the no-LOB class. Methods Subjects A total of 67 community-dwelling older adults were included in this study (age: 72.2 [5.3] y, height: 166.6 [15.1] cm, mass: 75.6 [12.7] kg, female
Shuaijie Wang, Yiru Wang, Yi-Chung (Clive) Pai, Edward Wang and Tanvi Bhatt
Lars Donath, Oliver Faude, Stephanie A. Bridenbaugh, Ralf Roth, Martin Soltermann, Reto W. Kressig and Lukas Zahner
This study examined transfer effects of fall training on fear of falling (Falls Efficacy Scale—International [FES–I]), balance performance, and spatiotemporal gait characteristics in older adults. Eighteen community-dwelling older adults (ages 65–85) were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. The intervention group completed 12 training sessions (60 min, 6 weeks). During pre- and posttesting, we measured FES–I, balance performance (double limb, closed eyes; single limb, open eyes; double limb, open eyes with motor-interfered task), and gait parameters (e.g., velocity; cadence; stride time, stride width, and stride length; variability of stride time and stride length) under single- and motor-interfered tasks. Dual tasks were applied to appraise improvements of cognitive processing during balance and gait. FES–I (p = .33) and postural sway did not significantly change (0.36 < p < .79). Trends toward significant interaction effects were found for step width during normal walking and stride length variability during the motor dual task (p = .05, ηp 2 = .22). Fall training did not sufficiently improve fear of falling, balance, or gait performance under single- or dual-task conditions in healthy older adults.
Tao Chen, Kenji Narazaki, Yuka Haeuchi, Sanmei Chen, Takanori Honda and Shuzo Kumagai
This cross-sectional study was performed to examine associations of objectively measured sedentary time (ST) and breaks in sedentary time (BST) with instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) disability in Japanese community-dwelling older adults.
The sample comprised 1634 older adults (mean age: 73.3 y, men: 38.4%). Sedentary behavior was measured using a triaxial accelerometer. Disability was defined as inability in at least 1 of the IADL tasks using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence.
After adjusting for potential confounders and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), longer ST was significantly associated with higher likelihood of IADL disability, whereas a greater number of BST was associated with lower likelihood of IADL disability. ST and BST remained statistically significant after mutual adjustment with odds ratio of 1.30 (95% confidence interval [CI)], 1.00–1.70) and 0.80 (95% CI, 0.65–0.99), respectively.
This study first demonstrated that shorter ST and more BST were associated with lower risk of IADL disability independent of MVPA and that the association for ST was independent of BST and vice versa. These findings suggest not only total ST but also the manner in which it is accumulated may contribute to the maintenance of functional independence in older adults.
Ing-Mari Dohrn, Maria Hagströmer, Mai-Lis Hellénius and Agneta Ståhle
To describe objectively-measured physical activity levels and patterns among community-dwelling older adults with osteoporosis, impaired balance, and fear of falling, and to explore the associations with gait, balance performance, falls self-efficacy, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL).
Ninety-four individuals (75.6 ± 5.4 years) were included. Physical activity was assessed with pedometers and accelerometers. Mean steps/day, dichotomized into < 5,000 or = 5,000 steps/day, and time spent in different physical activity intensities were analyzed. Gait was assessed with a GAITRite walkway, balance performance was assessed with the modified figure-eight test and oneleg stance, falls self-efficacy was assessed with the Falls Efficacy Scale International, and HRQoL was assessed with Short Form-36.
Mean steps/day were 6,201 (991–17,156) and 40% reported < 5,000 steps/day. Participants with < 5,000 steps/day spent more time sedentary, had slower gait speed, poorer balance performance, and lower HRQoL than participants with ≥ 5,000 steps/day. No participants with < 5,000 met the recommended level of physical activity.
Hadas Gabizon, Yan Press, Ilia Volkov and Itshak Melzer
To evaluate the effect of a group-based Pilates training program on balance control and health status in healthy older adults.
A single-blind, randomized, controlled trial.
A total of 88 community-dwelling older adults (age 71.15 ± 4.30 years), without evidence of functional balance impairment, were recruited and allocated at random to a Pilates intervention group (n = 44) or a control group (n = 44).
The Pilates intervention group received 36 training sessions over three months (3 sessions a week), while the control group did not receive any intervention.
Standing upright postural stability, performance-based measures of balance, and self-reported health status was assessed in both groups at baseline and at the end of the intervention period.
Compared with the control group, the Pilates intervention did not improve postural stability, baseline functional measures of balance, or health status.
The results suggest that because Pilates training is not task specific, it does not improve balance control or balance function in independent older adults.
Dereck L. Salisbury and Fang Yu
field tests of CRF have not been evaluated in community-dwelling older adults with AD. It is well documented that patterns of walking in persons with AD are different from age-matched, cognitively intact older adults ( Alexander, 1994 ; Alexander et al., 1995 ; O’Keeffe et al., 1996 ; Pedrinolla et
Silvia Aranda-García, Albert Busquets, Antoni Planas, Joan A. Prat-Subirana and Rosa M. Angulo-Barroso
Gait speed is related to physical function in older adults. This cross-sectional study examined the best predictors of maximal gait speed (MGS) among physical abilities, and general factors in healthy, rural community-dwelling older adults.
MGS, muscle strength, and postural sway were measured in 55 community-dwelling participants (age, 72.1 ± 6.8, range 61–87 years; 72.7% women). Two stepwise regressions were used to find MGS predictors in two models: physical abilities and global.
Strength of knee extensors with 60° of knee flexion (KStrength60°) and maximal distance in the anterior-posterior direction with eyes closed explained 50.2% of MGS variance (p < .05) in the physical abilities model. KStrength60°, age, and level of physical activity explained 63.9% of MGS variance (p < .05) in the global model.
Regardless of the model, KStrength60° was the best predictor of MGS in rural female older adults. Future research should examine the generalization of these findings to rural male older adults.
Yoshinori Fujiwara, Shoji Shinkai, Shuichiro Watanabe, Shu Kumagai, Takao Suzuki, Hiroshi Shibata, Tanji Hoshi and Toru Kita
This study investigated the effect of chronic medical conditions on changes in functional capacity in Japanese older adults. Participants comprised 1,518 people aged 65-84 living in an urban and a rural community. They were interviewed to determine the presence of chronic medical conditions and assessed for functional capacity using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology (TMIG) Index of Competence. Follow-up occurred 4 years later. Statistical analysis revealed that self-reported medical conditions at baseline contributed to declines in the TMIG Index over the 4 years, even after participants’ age, sex, educational attainment, and baseline TMIG level were controlled for. In the urban area, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, and musculoskeletal disease significantly predicted decline in the index, whereas in the rural area, hypertension and diabetes mellitus were significant predictors. These results indicate the importance of controlling chronic medical conditions in order to prevent further declines in functional capacity in older adults.
Kimberlee A. Gretebeck, Kaitlyn Radius, David R. Black, Randall J. Gretebeck, Rosemary Ziemba and Lawrence T. Glickman
Regular walking improves overall health and functional ability of older adults, yet most are sedentary. Dog ownership/pet responsibility may increase walking in older adults. Goals of this study were to identify factors that influence older adult walking and compare physical activity, functional ability and psychosocial characteristics by dog ownership status.
In this cross-sectional study, older adults (65−95 years of age, n = 1091) completed and returned questionnaires via postal mail. Measures included: Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly, Physical Functioning Questionnaire and Theory of Planned Behavior Questionnaire.
Dog owner/dog walkers (n = 77) reported significantly (P < .05) more total walking, walking frequency, leisure and total physical activity and higher total functional ability than dog owner/nondog walkers (n = 83) and nondog owners (n = 931). Dog owner/nondog walkers reported lower intention and perceived behavioral control and a less positive attitude than dog owner/dog walkers (P < .05).
Dog owner/dog walkers were significantly different than the nondog walker groups in nearly every study variable. Many dog owners (48.1%) reported walking their dogs regularly and the dog owner/dog walkers participated in nearly 50% more total walking than the 2 nondog walking groups, suggesting that pet obligation may provide a purposeful activity that motivates some older dog owners to walk.
Élvio R. Gouveia, Bruna R. Gouveia, José A. Maia, Cameron. J. Blimkie and Duarte L. Freitas
The aims of this study were to describe age- and sex-related differences in total body skeletal muscle (TB-SM) mass and to determine the variance explained by physical activity (PA). This cross-sectional study included 401 males and 402 females, aged 60–79 years. TB-SM was determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and PA by Baecke questionnaire. Statistical analysis included t test, ANOVAs, Pearson correlations, and multiple regression analysis. TB-SM mass was higher in the youngest age group when compared with the oldest in males and females. Males had greater TB-SM values than females. PA made a significant and positive contribution to the variation in TB-SM, β = 0.071; p = .016. Sex, height, fat mass, and PA explained 77% of the variance in TB-SM. The oldest cohorts and females had lower TB-SM than the younger cohorts and males. This study suggests that PA exerts a significant role in the explanation of TB-SM.