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Louise M. Burke, Linda M. Castell, Douglas J. Casa, Graeme L. Close, Ricardo J. S. Costa, Ben Desbrow, Shona L. Halson, Dana M. Lis, Anna K. Melin, Peter Peeling, Philo U. Saunders, Gary J. Slater, Jennifer Sygo, Oliver C. Witard, Stéphane Bermon and Trent Stellingwerff

volume requires dietary energy and CHO support, especially for high quality and race practice workouts • High power to weight ratio (i.e., low body mass/fat content) associated with success but poses another risk for low energy availability. • Race success requires high availability of economical CHO

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Samuel G. Impey, Kelly M. Hammond, Robert Naughton, Carl Langan-Evans, Sam O. Shepherd, Adam P. Sharples, Jessica Cegielski, Kenneth Smith, Stewart Jeromson, David L. Hamilton, Graeme L. Close and James P. Morton

exercise, 22 g during exercise, and a further 22 g immediately postexercise. Both trials represented deliberate conditions of reduced CHO and absolute energy availability, but with high protein availability in the form of whey or collagen throughout. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis

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Trent Stellingwerff, James P. Morton and Louise M. Burke

unique nutrition periodization challenges, such as body comp optimization during tapering, optimizing recovery protocols, to acute competition specific ergogenic aids (e.g., caffeine, sodium bicarbonate, etc.). Note . EA = EI – EEE/fat-free mass. CHO = carbohydrate; EA = energy availability; EI = energy

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Louise M. Burke, Asker E. Jeukendrup, Andrew M. Jones and Martin Mooses

assessment of anthropometric, hematological, and performance metrics over a 9-year career demonstrated a periodized approach. During the general preparation phase (September–April), the athlete was ∼2–4% over ideal race body mass (BM) and body fat (%), with optimal energy availability being prioritized. Body

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Joanne G. Mirtschin, Sara F. Forbes, Louise E. Cato, Ida A. Heikura, Nicki Strobel, Rebecca Hall and Louise M. Burke

changes in body composition, each athlete’s energy intake was set to provide energy availability of ∼40 kcal·kg lean BM −1 ·day −1 . The real-world experience of a loss of fat mass of ∼1–1.5 kg over the 4-week period of diet intervention and testing was permitted, and each athlete could request additional

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Ben T. Stephenson, Eleanor Hynes, Christof A. Leicht, Keith Tolfrey and Victoria L. Goosey-Tolfrey

risk factor for upper respiratory infections in elite professional athletes . Med Sci Sports Exerc . 2008 ; 40 : 1228 – 1236 . PubMed ID: 18580401 doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e31816be9c3 10.1249/MSS.0b013e31816be9c3 18580401 8. Blauwet CA , Brook EM , Tenforde AS , et al . Low energy availability

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Gary J. Slater, Jennifer Sygo and Majke Jorgensen

able to influence energy availability through these pathways may favorably affect sprint exercise performance. After reviewing the metabolic demands of sprinting, several supplements might benefit the sprint athlete, whether in training or competition, and these are summarized in Table  5 and

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Trent Stellingwerff, Ingvill Måkestad Bovim and Jamie Whitfield

training-induced nutritional adaptation. A question mark (?) highlights the requirement for more scientific validation. ATP = adenosine triphosphate; CHO = carbohydrate; EA = energy availability; FFM = fat-free mass; HR = heart rate; La = lactate; LT = lactate threshold; NM = neuromuscular; PCr

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Andreas M. Kasper, Ben Crighton, Carl Langan-Evans, Philip Riley, Asheesh Sharma, Graeme L. Close and James P. Morton

. Although we also acknowledge our inability to assess energy availability (owing to the lack of assessments of daily energy expenditure and exercise energy expenditure), we observed that the athlete exhibited clear symptoms of the relative energy deficiency in sport syndrome (RED-S; Mountjoy et al., 2014

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contraceptive pill or pharmaceutical agents for treating low bone density in female athletes. Rather, increasing energy availability and weight gain are more effective strategies, with bone strength improvements reported over one to six years. There is scant evidence on the long-term bone health in female