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Howard L. Nixon II

This paper addresses how parents encourage or discourage sports involvement by their visually impaired offspring, the types of sports involvement these children pursue, and the effects of parental encouragement on sports involvement. It analyzes new evidence from a study of parental adjustment to a visually impaired child. The evidence was derived mainly from open-ended, in-depth interviews of parents of 18 partially sighted and totally blind children who had attended public school. There were 15 mothers and 9 fathers in the 16 families who were interviewed, and 2 of the families had 2 visually impaired children. Additional data were provided through interviews with 14 professionals and volunteers from various fields who had sports-related experiences or observations of visually impaired children and their families. Four major forms of parental encouragement and discouragement were identified: strong encouragers, weak encouragers, tolerators, and discouragers. The predominance of the latter three helped explain the dominant patterns of limited involvement in sport by visually impaired children. Implications of these findings for mainstreaming and appropriate integration also are considered.

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Timothy T. Robinson and Albert V. Carron

The relationship between the decision of young athletes (N = 98) classified as starters, survivors, and dropouts to either maintain involvement with a competitive sport team or drop out and a number of motivational (personal) and situational factors was examined. The personal and situational factors employed fell into six categories: trait measures (competitive trait anxiety [A-trait], achievement motivation; intrinsic [self] motivation; self-esteem; and causal attributions), general attitudes toward competitive sport, sportsmanship and communication factors, socialization factors (parental and peer group involvement), coaching (leadership) considerations, and cohesion or group climate factors. Discriminant function analysis revealed that the continuum of actual participation which exists (starters-survivors-dropouts) is also directly related to systematic differences in personal factors within the groups as well as in their perception of specific situational factors. Variables discriminating among the groups included perception of group climate (sense of belonging, enjoyment, closeness), attitudes toward competition (perception of the importance of winning, role of physical activity in physical fitness development), socialization factors (encouragement received from fathers, encouragement received from teachers), attributions following athletic outcomes (attributions to ability following failure and effort following success), and leadership (perception of the coach as an autocrat).

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Deirdre Dlugonski, Katrina D. DuBose, Christine M. Habeeb and Patrick Rider

parental support, especially through engaging in physical activity coparticipation, is positively associated with child physical activity behavior. These studies have primarily included mothers, and it is important to also consider patterns of father–child physical activity coparticipation because both

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Hyo Jung Yoon, Sang Ah Lee, Young Jun Ju, Jin Young Nam and Eun-Cheol Park

on MVPAs over the 7 days before the survey. The log-transformed MVPA was used to satisfy the regression assumption of normality. Primary Variable Our study measured the influence of parental PA level on adolescent PA level. The MVPA levels of the mother and father were measured separately to

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Nick Wadsworth

attending physiotherapy sessions. The owner of the clinic recommended to both C.S. and her father that they contact me for some psychological support. C.S.’s father contacted me directly and explained that on her return to training, his daughter was experiencing a “mental block” on the move that had caused

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Tamara May, Nicole Rinehart, Lisa Barnett, Trina Hinkley, Jane McGillivray, Helen Skouteris, Delwyne Stephens and Debra Goldfinch

these children was 5 years ( SD  = 0.8, range = 4–7) and they were all male. Of these 15 families, 13 (86%) completed both pre- and post-program measures and nine parents (60%), 4 mothers and 5 fathers, agreed to participate in the qualitative interviews. In Phase 1, parent data which included

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Tanya R. Prewitt-White

painstakingly ruminated on with Coach, the more memories surfaced. As a young girl the only thing I ever wanted was to be a great basketball player. I was convinced Coach could help me become that great player. He swayed the community, the basketball program and its parents, my parents—namely my father, a man

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Craig Hyatt, Shannon Kerwin, Larena Hoeber and Katherine Sveinson

The literature on sport fans suggests that parents, most commonly fathers, have a significant influence on what teams their children come to support ( James, 2001 ; Kolbe & James, 2000 ; Spaaij & Anderson, 2010 ; Wann, 2006 ). However, in two studies involving former fans of National Hockey

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David Lilley

in a father’s singing. Brock shows how compassion may be guided by “a formed perception of [the] neighbor as clothed by the divine promise of a God whose will is to enact mercy” (p. 115). This perception upholds common participation in the marvelous joy of sport that is perhaps the book’s strongest

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Paweł Zembura, Agata Korcz, Elżbieta Cieśla, Aleksandra Gołdys and Hanna Nałȩcz

to their participation in PA materially (by providing resources), 64.5% consider themselves enabled to participate in PA, 41.4% get emotional support, 17.3% receive support in planning activities 10 15.1% of mothers and 24% of fathers regularly participate in sport or are physically active at least