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Anthony J. Amorose and Maureen R. Weiss

This study examined, from a developmental perspective, how coaching feedback serves as an ability cue. Boys and girls (N = 60) comprising 2 age groups (6-8, 12-14) viewed videotapes of youth athletes attempting to hit a baseball or softball, followed by a coach who provided evaluative, informational, or neutral feedback. Participants then rated each athlete’s ability, effort, and future expectancy of success. Separate 2 × 2 × 3 (age × gender × feedback type) repeated measures MANOVAs were conducted for the successful and unsuccessful outcome conditions. Following successful attempts, both older and younger children rated praise higher than neutral and informational feedback as a source of ability information. Athletes receiving informational feedback following unsuccessful attempts were rated highest, followed by neutral feedback and criticism. Open-ended questions revealed some age-related differences in use of ability information. Results are discussed in relation to research on sources of competence information and coaching feedback.

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Virginie Nicaise, Geneviève Cogérino, Julien Bois and Anthony J. Amorose

Feedback is considered a critical teaching function, and researchers in sport pedagogy have shown interest in verifying its importance in physical education. Many observational studies have found that boys receive more attention and feedback, particularly praise, criticism, and technical information, than girls. Nevertheless, little is known about students’ perceptions of teacher–student interactions. The aim of this study was to investigate whether students’ perceptions of teacher feedbacks are gender-differentiated in physical education, as well as to determine how perceived feedback is related to students’ perceptions of competence. French high school students (N = 450: 200 boys, 250 girls) completed questionnaires assessing their perceptions of their teachers’ feedback and their perceptions of competence. Results indicated gender differences in the set of variables. Furthermore, the influence of teacher feedback on girls’ perceptions of competence was strong, whereas little relationship was found for boys. These findings are then discussed in terms of teaching effectiveness.

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Stu Ryan and Beverly Yerg

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of feedback given to (a) target student(s) from same sector (close by) and (b) opposite sectors (at a distance) on the off-task behavior of middle school physical education students. The design used in this investigation was a reversal A-B-A-B with two treatments, single case design across subjects. The two treatments (independent variables) were same sector feedback and opposite sector feedback. Data were collected on the dependent variable of off-task behavior and the variables of rate and type of feedback, student and teacher location, and teacher movement. Results indicated consistency in the decline of off-task behavior for all classes when opposite sector (crossgroup) feedback was implemented, which suggests that teacher feedback at a distance can be an effective technique for reducing student off-task behavior. In all but one case, off-task behavior rates reduced markedly at the point when the intervention was introduced. The results also indicated both participating teachers tended to use more skill feedback and less management feedback with their classes when using crossgroup feedback.

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Yves Vanden Auweele, Filip Boen, Annick De Geest and Jos Feys

The purpose of this experiment was to determine whether the open feedback system used in synchronized swimming (i.e., the judges hear and see each others’ scores after having rated each performance) leads to unwanted (i.e., nonperformance-based) conformity in the scoring by judges. Twenty judges in synchronized swimming were randomly divided into four panels of five judges. They had to rate 60 performances of the same imposed figure, the barracuda twirl: 30 performances in Phase 1 and 30 in Phase 2. Two independent variables were orthogonally manipulated: feedback (or none) during Phase 1 and feedback (or none) during Phase 2. In line with the hypotheses, the variation of scores given in Phase 1 was significantly smaller when the judges had received feedback than when they had not received feedback. Moreover, the variation of the scores given in Phase 2 remained significantly smaller among the judges who had received feedback in Phase 1 but not in Phase 2, compared with judges who had not received feedback in either phase. These results indicate that the scoring of judges in synchronized swimming is strongly and lastingly influenced by immediate feedback.

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Matt D. Hoffmann, Ashley M. Duguay, Michelle D. Guerrero, Todd M. Loughead and Krista J. Munroe-Chandler

The sport literature yields little information concerning the available methods or processes coaches can use to obtain feedback about their coaching. This is unfortunate given that evaluative feedback about one’s coaching performance is useful in terms of providing direction for professional coach development (Mallett & Côté, 2006). As a follow-up to O’Boyle (2014), the purpose of this Best Practices paper is to offer a sample protocol for employing a 360-degree feedback system for coaches working in high performance settings. We draw on a review of the coach evaluation and 360-degree feedback literature, along with insights shared from Canadian intercollegiate head coaches to highlight some of the potential benefits and challenges of implementing a 360-degree feedback system in sport. We then suggest ‘best practices’ for effectively integrating this appraisal system and provide an example coach report to illustrate how feedback would be provided to a coach following a 360-degree feedback protocol. It is our hope that this sample protocol paper will encourage coaches, athletic directors, and other sport administrators to integrate comprehensive coach feedback practices in their sporting programs.

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G. Linda Rikard

This study examined the relationship of teachers’ task refinement and feedback to the practice success of low- and high-skilled students. Data were gathered from two introductory striking units taught to fourth graders by physical education specialists. Four high- and 4 low-skilled subjects from intact classes were randomly selected in order to examine practice success when receiving refining tasks as compared to when receiving extending and applying tasks, both before and after teacher feedback. Success for low-skilled subjects remained about the same (74%) in response to both refinement and extending and applying tasks. Modest increases in success occurred when refining tasks were followed by specific feedback. High-skilled subjects’ practice success improved by 14% when they received refining tasks, as compared to when they received extending and applying tasks; however, no increase in success was experienced when teacher feedback followed refining tasks. Feedback following extending and applying tasks did result in increases in practice success for these subjects.

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Steven K.S. Tan

This study represents a descriptive analysis of feedback patterns and perceptual maps of experienced and inexperienced teachers. Five experienced elementary physical education teachers and 5 inexperienced teachers participated in the study. Data were collected by videotaping and audiotaping three lessons taught by each teacher. Transcripts of audiotapes were made for all verbal feedback administered by the teachers, and each unit of feedback was coded from the written transcripts using a multidimensional observation system. Following the second and third lessons, patterns in cue perception employed by teachers during feedback interaction were accessed using a stimulated recall interview and concept mapping techniques. Results indicated that inexperienced teachers did not differ from experienced teachers in their feedback structure. However, experienced teachers differed from inexperienced teachers on their perceptual patterns. Specifically, perceptual maps of experienced teachers were more complex and were organized hierarchically, whereas inexperienced teachers’ patterns tended to be sparse and hierarchically shallow.

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Thomas J. Burkholder and T. Richard Nichols

Postural regulation is an important part of a variety of motor tasks, including quiet standing and locomotion. Muscle length feedback, both the autogenic length feedback arising from a muscle's own spindles, and heterogenic length feedback, arising from its agonists and antagonists, is a strong modulator of muscle force and well suited to postural maintenance. The effects of this reflex feedback on 3-D force generation and limb mechanics are not known. In this paper, we present a mechanical model for relating 3-D changes in cat hindlimb posture to changes in muscle lengths. These changes in muscle length are used to estimate changes in both intrinsic muscle force generation and muscle activation by length feedback pathways. Few muscles are found to have directly agonist mechanical actions, and most differ by more than 20°. Endpoint force fields are largely uniform across the space investigated. Both autogenic and heterogenic feedback contribute to whole limb resistance to perturbation, autogenic pathways being most dramatic. Length feedback strongly reinforced a restoring force in response to end-point displacement.

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Deborah L. Feltz and Camala A. Riessinger

An experiment was conducted to investigate the relative merits of in vivo emotive imagery and performance feedback in enhancing self-efficacy beliefs and performance on a competitive muscular endurance task. College males (n=60) and females (n=60) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: mastery imagery plus feedback, feedback alone, or control condition. Subjects in the imagery-plus-feedback condition were told that one of the pair (always the subject) would receive imagery exposure while the other (always the confederate) would wait outside. Subjects performed two trials against the confederate, who always won by 10 seconds. A Group x Trials interaction for self-efficacy revealed a significant increase for the imagery group after brief exposure. Also, imagery subjects had significantly higher efficacy scores than feedback alone or control subjects after each performance trial. A Group x Trials interaction for performance indicated that imagery subjects initially had significantly longer performance times than did feedback alone or control subjects. Performance feedback alone did not influence efficacy beliefs or performance.

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A. Brian Nielsen and Larry Beauchamp

There has been some support for the notion that the analytical skills of prospective physical education teachers can be improved through systematic training (Armstrong, 1986; Beveridge & Gangstead, 1988). The ultimate pedagogical objective of such analysis is the provision of meaningful feedback to the learner (Hoffman, 1977). The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of training in conceptual kinesiology on the feedback patterns of students engaged in physical education teacher preparation. Prior to and after 32 hours of instruction in kinesiological concepts, subjects (N=48) viewed several videotaped performances of a familiar and a novel skill and responded by providing corrective feedback as they would if the learners were present. Analysis of pretest/posttest differences indicated a significant increase in the corrective, accurate trial-specific feedback provided for both skills. Further analysis revealed that gender, major/minor status, and high school volleyball team experience were not related to feedback provision. However, feedback patterns were related to entry level and achievement level during the training course. It was concluded that training in conceptual kinesiology can enhance feedback-provision patterns during professional preparation.