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Jeremy W. Noble, Janice J. Eng and Lara A. Boyd

This study examined the effect of visual feedback and force level on the neural mechanisms responsible for the performance of a motor task. We used a voxelwise fMRI approach to determine the effect of visual feedback (with and without) during a grip force task at 35% and 70% of maximum voluntary contraction. Two areas (contralateral rostral premotor cortex and putamen) displayed an interaction between force and feedback conditions. When the main effect of feedback condition was analyzed, higher activation when visual feedback was available was found in 22 of the 24 active brain areas, while the two other regions (contralateral lingual gyrus and ipsilateral precuneus) showed greater levels of activity when no visual feedback was available. The results suggest that there is a potentially confounding influence of visual feedback on brain activation during a motor task, and for some regions, this is dependent on the level of force applied.

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Silvia C. Lipski, Stefanie Unger, Martine Grice and Ingo G. Meister

Adult speakers have developed precise forward models of articulation for their native language and seem to rely less on auditory sensory feedback. However, for learning of the production of new speech sounds, auditory perception provides a corrective signal for motor control. We assessed adult German speakers’ speech motor learning capacity in the absence of auditory feedback but with clear somatosensory information. Learners were presented with a nonnative singleton-geminate duration contrast of voiceless, unaspirated bilabial plosives /p/ vs. /pp/ which is present in Italian. We found that the lack of auditory feedback had no immediate effect but that deviating productions emerged during the course of learning. By the end of training, speakers with masked feedback produced strong lengthening of segments and showed more variation on their production than speakers with normal auditory feedback. Our findings indicate that auditory feedback is necessary for the learning of precise coordination of articulation even if somatosensory feedback is salient.

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Anthony J. Amorose and Maureen R. Weiss

This study examined, from a developmental perspective, how coaching feedback serves as an ability cue. Boys and girls (N = 60) comprising 2 age groups (6-8, 12-14) viewed videotapes of youth athletes attempting to hit a baseball or softball, followed by a coach who provided evaluative, informational, or neutral feedback. Participants then rated each athlete’s ability, effort, and future expectancy of success. Separate 2 × 2 × 3 (age × gender × feedback type) repeated measures MANOVAs were conducted for the successful and unsuccessful outcome conditions. Following successful attempts, both older and younger children rated praise higher than neutral and informational feedback as a source of ability information. Athletes receiving informational feedback following unsuccessful attempts were rated highest, followed by neutral feedback and criticism. Open-ended questions revealed some age-related differences in use of ability information. Results are discussed in relation to research on sources of competence information and coaching feedback.

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Virginie Nicaise, Geneviève Cogérino, Julien Bois and Anthony J. Amorose

Feedback is considered a critical teaching function, and researchers in sport pedagogy have shown interest in verifying its importance in physical education. Many observational studies have found that boys receive more attention and feedback, particularly praise, criticism, and technical information, than girls. Nevertheless, little is known about students’ perceptions of teacher–student interactions. The aim of this study was to investigate whether students’ perceptions of teacher feedbacks are gender-differentiated in physical education, as well as to determine how perceived feedback is related to students’ perceptions of competence. French high school students (N = 450: 200 boys, 250 girls) completed questionnaires assessing their perceptions of their teachers’ feedback and their perceptions of competence. Results indicated gender differences in the set of variables. Furthermore, the influence of teacher feedback on girls’ perceptions of competence was strong, whereas little relationship was found for boys. These findings are then discussed in terms of teaching effectiveness.

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Stu Ryan and Beverly Yerg

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of feedback given to (a) target student(s) from same sector (close by) and (b) opposite sectors (at a distance) on the off-task behavior of middle school physical education students. The design used in this investigation was a reversal A-B-A-B with two treatments, single case design across subjects. The two treatments (independent variables) were same sector feedback and opposite sector feedback. Data were collected on the dependent variable of off-task behavior and the variables of rate and type of feedback, student and teacher location, and teacher movement. Results indicated consistency in the decline of off-task behavior for all classes when opposite sector (crossgroup) feedback was implemented, which suggests that teacher feedback at a distance can be an effective technique for reducing student off-task behavior. In all but one case, off-task behavior rates reduced markedly at the point when the intervention was introduced. The results also indicated both participating teachers tended to use more skill feedback and less management feedback with their classes when using crossgroup feedback.

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Yves Vanden Auweele, Filip Boen, Annick De Geest and Jos Feys

The purpose of this experiment was to determine whether the open feedback system used in synchronized swimming (i.e., the judges hear and see each others’ scores after having rated each performance) leads to unwanted (i.e., nonperformance-based) conformity in the scoring by judges. Twenty judges in synchronized swimming were randomly divided into four panels of five judges. They had to rate 60 performances of the same imposed figure, the barracuda twirl: 30 performances in Phase 1 and 30 in Phase 2. Two independent variables were orthogonally manipulated: feedback (or none) during Phase 1 and feedback (or none) during Phase 2. In line with the hypotheses, the variation of scores given in Phase 1 was significantly smaller when the judges had received feedback than when they had not received feedback. Moreover, the variation of the scores given in Phase 2 remained significantly smaller among the judges who had received feedback in Phase 1 but not in Phase 2, compared with judges who had not received feedback in either phase. These results indicate that the scoring of judges in synchronized swimming is strongly and lastingly influenced by immediate feedback.

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Matt D. Hoffmann, Ashley M. Duguay, Michelle D. Guerrero, Todd M. Loughead and Krista J. Munroe-Chandler

The sport literature yields little information concerning the available methods or processes coaches can use to obtain feedback about their coaching. This is unfortunate given that evaluative feedback about one’s coaching performance is useful in terms of providing direction for professional coach development (Mallett & Côté, 2006). As a follow-up to O’Boyle (2014), the purpose of this Best Practices paper is to offer a sample protocol for employing a 360-degree feedback system for coaches working in high performance settings. We draw on a review of the coach evaluation and 360-degree feedback literature, along with insights shared from Canadian intercollegiate head coaches to highlight some of the potential benefits and challenges of implementing a 360-degree feedback system in sport. We then suggest ‘best practices’ for effectively integrating this appraisal system and provide an example coach report to illustrate how feedback would be provided to a coach following a 360-degree feedback protocol. It is our hope that this sample protocol paper will encourage coaches, athletic directors, and other sport administrators to integrate comprehensive coach feedback practices in their sporting programs.

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G. Linda Rikard

This study examined the relationship of teachers’ task refinement and feedback to the practice success of low- and high-skilled students. Data were gathered from two introductory striking units taught to fourth graders by physical education specialists. Four high- and 4 low-skilled subjects from intact classes were randomly selected in order to examine practice success when receiving refining tasks as compared to when receiving extending and applying tasks, both before and after teacher feedback. Success for low-skilled subjects remained about the same (74%) in response to both refinement and extending and applying tasks. Modest increases in success occurred when refining tasks were followed by specific feedback. High-skilled subjects’ practice success improved by 14% when they received refining tasks, as compared to when they received extending and applying tasks; however, no increase in success was experienced when teacher feedback followed refining tasks. Feedback following extending and applying tasks did result in increases in practice success for these subjects.

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Steven K.S. Tan

This study represents a descriptive analysis of feedback patterns and perceptual maps of experienced and inexperienced teachers. Five experienced elementary physical education teachers and 5 inexperienced teachers participated in the study. Data were collected by videotaping and audiotaping three lessons taught by each teacher. Transcripts of audiotapes were made for all verbal feedback administered by the teachers, and each unit of feedback was coded from the written transcripts using a multidimensional observation system. Following the second and third lessons, patterns in cue perception employed by teachers during feedback interaction were accessed using a stimulated recall interview and concept mapping techniques. Results indicated that inexperienced teachers did not differ from experienced teachers in their feedback structure. However, experienced teachers differed from inexperienced teachers on their perceptual patterns. Specifically, perceptual maps of experienced teachers were more complex and were organized hierarchically, whereas inexperienced teachers’ patterns tended to be sparse and hierarchically shallow.

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A. Brian Nielsen and Larry Beauchamp

There has been some support for the notion that the analytical skills of prospective physical education teachers can be improved through systematic training (Armstrong, 1986; Beveridge & Gangstead, 1988). The ultimate pedagogical objective of such analysis is the provision of meaningful feedback to the learner (Hoffman, 1977). The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of training in conceptual kinesiology on the feedback patterns of students engaged in physical education teacher preparation. Prior to and after 32 hours of instruction in kinesiological concepts, subjects (N=48) viewed several videotaped performances of a familiar and a novel skill and responded by providing corrective feedback as they would if the learners were present. Analysis of pretest/posttest differences indicated a significant increase in the corrective, accurate trial-specific feedback provided for both skills. Further analysis revealed that gender, major/minor status, and high school volleyball team experience were not related to feedback provision. However, feedback patterns were related to entry level and achievement level during the training course. It was concluded that training in conceptual kinesiology can enhance feedback-provision patterns during professional preparation.