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Ralph Beneke, Tobias G.J. Weber and Renate M. Leithäuser

10.1111/j.1748-1716.1984.tb07414.x 6237550 23. Kiilerich K , Gudmundsson M , Birk JB , et al . Low muscle glycogen and elevated plasma free fatty acid modify but do not prevent exercise-induced PDH activation in human skeletal muscle . Diabetes . 2010 ; 59 : 26 – 32 . PubMed doi:10

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Devin G. McCarthy and Lawrence L. Spriet

fructose-maltodextrin condition. 26 Although ingesting a large CHO bolus postexercise increases blood glucose during the recovery period, 18 , 26 blood glucose, insulin, and free fatty acid concentrations returned to PL levels within 2 hours or within 10 minutes after starting a subsequent exercise bout

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Thiago Correa Porto Gonçalves, Atila Alexandre Trapé, Jhennyfer Aline Lima Rodrigues, Simone Sakagute Tavares and Carlos Roberto Bueno Junior

. , Hennings , S. , Mitchell , J. , Halsall , D. , . . . Wareham , N.J. ( 2001 ). The effect of the Gly16Arg polymorphism of the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor gene on plasma free fatty acid levels is modulated by physical activity . The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 86 ( 12

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Mark Elisabeth Theodorus Willems, Mehmet Akif Şahin and Matthew David Cook

 al., 2015 ). In addition, TRPV1 is also linked with endothelial nitric oxide synthase activation and nitric oxide production ( Yu et al., 2017 ). Activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase would result in increased production of nitric oxide and enhanced blood flow with improved delivery of free fatty

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Nicholas W. Baumgartner, Anne M. Walk, Caitlyn G. Edwards, Alicia R. Covello, Morgan R. Chojnacki, Ginger E. Reeser, Andrew M. Taylor, Hannah D. Holscher and Naiman A. Khan

tissues and circulation, has also been observed within the brain, serving as a potential mechanism by which obesity may contribute to cognitive dysfunction. 13 , 14 Excess fat mass can lead to increased levels of circulating free fatty acids, proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and immune cells, which

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David C. Nieman, Giuseppe Valacchi, Laurel M. Wentz, Francesca Ferrara, Alessandra Pecorelli, Brittany Woodby, Camila A. Sakaguchi and Andrew Simonson

, A. , & Suzuki , K. ( 2017 ). Taheebo polyphenols attenuate free fatty acid-induced inflammation in murine and human macrophage cell lines as inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2 . Frontiers in Nutrition, 4, 63 . PubMed ID: 29312947 doi:10.3389/fnut.2017.00063 10.3389/fnut.2017.00063 McAnulty , S

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Pedro L. Valenzuela, Javier S. Morales, Adrián Castillo-García and Alejandro Lucia

smell Four 15-s cycling sprints • Performance • Cognition • Blood analysis • ↔ performance • ↑plasma d -βHB after exercise Abbreviations: ↑ increase; ↔ no change; ↓ decrease; CHO, carbohydrate; d -βHB, d -β-hydroxybutyrate; FFA, free fatty acids; OBLA, onset of blood lactate accumulation; RER

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Miguel A. Sanchez-Lastra, Kyle J. Miller, Rodolfo I. Martínez-Lemos, Antón Giráldez and Carlos Ayán

total cholesterol, 40 triglycerides, 40 and aspartate aminotransferase, 37 as well as improvements in free fatty acids, fasting plasma glucose, and insulin. 34 Moreover, benefits were reported for the percentage of glycosylated hemoglobin A 1c (HbA 1c ), 39 the homeostasis model assessment of

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Tiago Turnes, Rogério S.O. Cruz, Fabrizio Caputo and Rafael A. De Aguiar

affecting the rate of substrate oxidation. 42 , 43 Indeed, elevated plasma-free fatty acid at rest 7 and submaximal exercise and reduced respiratory exchange ratio at rest 9 were observed. However, in addition to no alterations in these variables after maximal exercise, improvements in 2000-m test seem

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Liam D. Corr, Adam Field, Deborah Pufal, Jenny Killey, Tom Clifford, Liam D. Harper and Robert J. Naughton

stress and increase of free-fatty-acid mobilization in response to prolonged cycling . International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 21 ( 2 ), 113 – 123 . PubMed ID: 21558573 doi: 10.1123/ijsnem.21.2.113 Bowtell , J.L. , Sumners , D.P. , Dyer , A. , Fox , P. , & Mileva