test position, and the test criteria present or absent within each breathing category (functional and dysfunctional) by breathing test and test position. Differences in outcome (functional and dysfunctional) were analyzed using a generalized estimated equations approach with a logit link. Breathing
Hannah Horris, Barton E. Anderson, R. Curtis Bay and Kellie C. Huxel Bliven
Timothy J.H. Lathlean, Paul B. Gastin, Stuart V. Newstead and Caroline F. Finch
between loads and injury across the season; however, no evidence was found. Hence, potential intercorrelation between observations for the same player was accommodated using a generalized estimating equations (GEE) model. The repeated-measure unit in the GEE analysis was the player. The observation for
Dale A. Ulrich and Steven L. Wise
This study was designed to investigate the reliability of individual and composite scores obtained with the Objectives-Based Motor Skill Assessment Instrument. Generalizability theory was used to determine if the test scores were reliable across raters and occasions. Two D studies were conducted to ascertain whether an increase in the number of raters from 10 to 20 would increase the reliability. Twenty raters were required to evaluate the fundamental motor skills of 10 subjects across two occasions from videotapes. In 92% of the individual skill scores, the between-subject variance component contributed the most to total variance. Therefore, it can be concluded that the test is extremely reliable across raters and occasions. Examination of the generalizability coefficients for the two D studies indicates that the reliability is not largely affected by increasing the number of raters.
James Yaggie and W. Jeffrey Armstrong
Use of selective joints in fatiguing protocols might not represent athletic activity and limits generalizability.
To quantify changes in balance indices after a generalized fatiguing activity.
16 men (24 ± 3 y) with no orthopedic problems.
Balance was assessed using the KAT-2000 system before (PRE) and immediately (IMMED) and 10 min (10MIN) after serial Wingate tests and at similar time points under nonfatigue conditions.
Main Outcome Measures:
Balance index (BI), fore:back ratio, and right:left ratio.
MANOVA revealed a significant Condition × Time effect (P = .023). ANOVA revealed that only BI was significant for the condition, time, and Condition × Time effects (P = .020, .007, and .003, respectively). BI increased PRE to IMMED, decreased IMMED to 10MIN, and was different from the nonfatigue condition only for IMMED (P = .002, < .001, and < .001, respectively).
Fatigue adversely affects BI; recovery might occur within 10 min.
Evan B. Brody, Bradley D. Hatfield and Thomas W. Spalding
This study examined the generalization of self-efficacy to additional stressors upon mastery of a high-risk task (i.e., rappeling). A secondary purpose was to determine if reductions in the psychophysiological anxiety response would occur to controlled laboratory challenges as a result of any psychological changes derived from the mastery experience. To investigate these issues, the researchers assigned college-age males (N=34) to treatment, consisting of participant-based modeling with self-directed mastery, or control. Self-efficacy was enhanced toward the rappel situation after treatment and the perceived increase was generalized to the area of high-risk activities. State anxiety was significantly reduced toward the treatment situation (i.e., rappel) at posttest, but no parallel change in stress reactivity or self-reported anxiety generalized to the laboratory stressors. This finding was expected, as no changes were noted in self-reported efficacy to accomplish the laboratory challenges. These results support the generalization of self-efficacy to relatively similar situations.
Ronald E. Smith
An important consideration in coping skills training is the extent to which acquired skills generalize to other life domains. For example, sport-oriented performance enhancement skills are often regarded as “life skills” that can also facilitate adaptation in other areas of life. Moreover, task-specific increases in self-efficacy produced by coping skills training could generalize to broader self-referent cognitive domains and affect global personality traits such as self-esteem and locus of control. The concept of generalization is analyzed, and factors and procedures that influence the strength and breadth of generalization effects are discussed. Several coping skills studies that address generalization effects of stress management and self-defense training are described, and the author suggests that generalization assessment should be a focal rather than incidental consideration when evaluating coping skills interventions.
Kenneth C. Lam and Jessica G. Markbreiter
Pedi-IKDC and PedsQL scores revealed negatively skewed distributions. To account for the nonnormal distribution of scores, generalized linear models (gamma with log link) were used to evaluate interaction and main effects of injury history and sex, with alpha set at .05, 2-tailed. All analyses were
Melvin M. Mark, Manette Mutrie, David R. Brooks and Dorothy V. Harris
The achievement oriented world of sport has been a frequent setting for the study of attributions for success and failure. However, it may be inappropriate to generalize from previous research to attributions made in actual, organized, competitive, individual sports because previous studies suffer from one or more of three characteristics which may limit their generalizability to such settings: previous studies have employed novel tasks, staged the competition for research purposes, or examined attribution about team success or failure. The present research was conducted (a) to avoid these limitations to generalizability, (b) to examine whether competitors who differ in experience or ability make different attributions for success and failure, and (c) to employ an attribution measure that does not rely too much on the researchers' interpretation of the subjects' attributions as past techniques have done. Two studies were conducted examining the attributions made by winners and losers in the second round of organized squash (Study 1) and racquetball (Study 2) tournaments. Subjects reported their attributions on the Causal Dimension Scale developed by Russell (1982). Results indicate no difference between players of different experience/ability levels. In addition, winners and losers did not differ in the locus of causality of their attributions, but winners, relative to losers, made more stable and controllable attributions. Implications of these results were discussed first in terms of the debate over self-serving bias in attributions, and second, in terms of the effects of ability and experience on attributions.
Judith J. Prochaska, James F. Sallis, Donald J. Slymen and Thomas L. McKenzie
One mission of physical education (PE) is the promotion of enjoyable physical activity participation. PE enjoyment of 414 elementary school students (51% male, 77% Caucasian) was examined in a 3-year prospective study. Analyzed using Generalized Estimating Equations, PE enjoyment decreased significantly from the fourth to sixth grade (p < .001) and was lower among girls (p < .001) and students not in organized sports (p < .005). Ethnicity and body mass index were not significant predictors of PE enjoyment. Girls, older children, and those not on sports teams are especially dependent on PE as the setting for accruing health-related physical activity, and strategies are needed to enhance their PE enjoyment.
Russell E. Ward Jr.
Most studies find positive correlations at the individual level of analysis between athletic participation and academic success. One opportunity for scholarship left largely unexplored concerns the effect of athletics on group-level processes. The author used a resource-based perspective to explore the influence of athletic investment on academic achievement at the organizational level. Data were collected from 227 school districts. Multiple regression analyses revealed negative but insignificant relationships between athletic expenditures and indicators of basic skills and college preparation. Future research might determine whether the nonassociation observed in this study between athletic spending and academic performance generalizes to different school settings.