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Teun van Erp, Marco Hoozemans, Carl Foster and Jos J. de Koning

, and thus, excluding the middle group enhances contrast in the analysis. Linear regression analyses were used to investigate whether training intensity (low or high) affects the association between kJ spent and the various other TLs (sRPE, luTRIMP, and TSS). Generalized estimating equations with an

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Timothy J.H. Lathlean, Paul B. Gastin, Stuart V. Newstead and Caroline F. Finch

interval of the OR that did not include 1.0. A generalized estimating equation (GEE) model, a method used widely for longitudinal modeling in sports injury studies, 31 was used to assess for associations between wellness and injury. The repeated measure unit in the GEE analysis was the player. The

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Robert McCunn, Hugh H.K. Fullagar, Sean Williams, Travis J. Halseth, John A. Sampson and Andrew Murray

incidence rates was analyzed using a generalized linear mixed-effects model (GLMM), with a Poisson distribution, log-linear link function, and offset for hours of training exposure or number of game snaps (for training and game injuries, respectively). This mixed-effects model was selected for its ability

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Nili Steinberg, Gordon Waddington, Roger Adams, Janet Karin and Oren Tirosh

female dancers practice their PB in relaxed conditions with different types of shoes and surfaces; and (e) with most studies focused on static postural stability, whereas most activities of dancers are dynamic in nature, both static and dynamic postural stability should be assessed and generalized into

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Hannah Horris, Barton E. Anderson, R. Curtis Bay and Kellie C. Huxel Bliven

test position, and the test criteria present or absent within each breathing category (functional and dysfunctional) by breathing test and test position. Differences in outcome (functional and dysfunctional) were analyzed using a generalized estimated equations approach with a logit link. Breathing

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Corbin A. Hedt, S. Brett Holland, Bradley S. Lambert, Joshua D. Harris and Patrick C. McCulloch

, Q10, and Q15; Appendix ), raw data were assessed and priority scores were generated for analysis. A generalized linear mixed model for nonparametric data was utilized and repeated across criteria response with a Bonferroni post hoc adjustment for pairwise comparisons made within and between groups

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Timothy J.H. Lathlean, Paul B. Gastin, Stuart V. Newstead and Caroline F. Finch

between loads and injury across the season; however, no evidence was found. Hence, potential intercorrelation between observations for the same player was accommodated using a generalized estimating equations (GEE) model. The repeated-measure unit in the GEE analysis was the player. The observation for

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James Yaggie and W. Jeffrey Armstrong


Use of selective joints in fatiguing protocols might not represent athletic activity and limits generalizability.


To quantify changes in balance indices after a generalized fatiguing activity.


Repeated measures.


Clinical laboratory.


16 men (24 ± 3 y) with no orthopedic problems.


Balance was assessed using the KAT-2000 system before (PRE) and immediately (IMMED) and 10 min (10MIN) after serial Wingate tests and at similar time points under nonfatigue conditions.

Main Outcome Measures:

Balance index (BI), fore:back ratio, and right:left ratio.


MANOVA revealed a significant Condition × Time effect (P = .023). ANOVA revealed that only BI was significant for the condition, time, and Condition × Time effects (P = .020, .007, and .003, respectively). BI increased PRE to IMMED, decreased IMMED to 10MIN, and was different from the nonfatigue condition only for IMMED (P = .002, < .001, and < .001, respectively).


Fatigue adversely affects BI; recovery might occur within 10 min.

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Ronald E. Smith

An important consideration in coping skills training is the extent to which acquired skills generalize to other life domains. For example, sport-oriented performance enhancement skills are often regarded as “life skills” that can also facilitate adaptation in other areas of life. Moreover, task-specific increases in self-efficacy produced by coping skills training could generalize to broader self-referent cognitive domains and affect global personality traits such as self-esteem and locus of control. The concept of generalization is analyzed, and factors and procedures that influence the strength and breadth of generalization effects are discussed. Several coping skills studies that address generalization effects of stress management and self-defense training are described, and the author suggests that generalization assessment should be a focal rather than incidental consideration when evaluating coping skills interventions.

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Evan B. Brody, Bradley D. Hatfield and Thomas W. Spalding

This study examined the generalization of self-efficacy to additional stressors upon mastery of a high-risk task (i.e., rappeling). A secondary purpose was to determine if reductions in the psychophysiological anxiety response would occur to controlled laboratory challenges as a result of any psychological changes derived from the mastery experience. To investigate these issues, the researchers assigned college-age males (N=34) to treatment, consisting of participant-based modeling with self-directed mastery, or control. Self-efficacy was enhanced toward the rappel situation after treatment and the perceived increase was generalized to the area of high-risk activities. State anxiety was significantly reduced toward the treatment situation (i.e., rappel) at posttest, but no parallel change in stress reactivity or self-reported anxiety generalized to the laboratory stressors. This finding was expected, as no changes were noted in self-reported efficacy to accomplish the laboratory challenges. These results support the generalization of self-efficacy to relatively similar situations.