the concept of a mental warm-up can be found in research on the effects of brief psychological interventions (e.g., goal setting, imagery, psyching-up, self-talk) implemented before the completion of sport or sport-related tasks (for a meta-analysis, see Brown & Fletcher, 2017 ). Following the logic
Britton W. Brewer, Adisa Haznadar, Dylan Katz, Judy L. Van Raalte and Albert J. Petitpas
Lea-Cathrin Dohme, David Piggott, Susan Backhouse and Gareth Morgan
control, social skills, goal setting, realistic performance evaluation, competitiveness, and game awareness. Across two research teams, we can thus see a level of variance concerning the PSCs recommended to be developed in youth athletes. This variance is not surprising and can occur when researchers
Jonathan Rhodes, Jon May, Jackie Andrade and David Kavanagh
durations and autonomous goal setting that uses positive motivational imagery to enhance task mastery. There are also constraints for psychologists working in applied settings and, subsequently, a need for reflexivity when designing the FIT delivery and throughout implementation. There are a series of
Andrew P. Driska
(11, 19) Knowledge Behaviours Useful topics (20, 99) Age-appropriate workouts (19, 37) Burning questions (12, 18) Fun incorporated properly (19, 32) Didn’t understand (11, 14) Goal setting (18, 30) Already knew it (11, 17) Video (17, 18) Rely on sport experience (6, 15) Be a role model (11, 17
cognitive inaccuracies such as excessively high standards and highly critical self-evaluation ( Kearns, Forbes, & Gardiner, 2007 ), and (4) to help the athlete develop goals for change (e.g., Shafran, Cooper, & Fairburn, 2002 ). I chose to include awareness-raising and goal-setting components of this plan
Melinda Forthofer, Sara Wilcox, Deborah Kinnard, Brent Hutto and Patricia A. Sharpe
mass index. 21 Group members rated their relationship with their walking group leader in terms of the nature of their relationship, proximity of residence, and frequency of contact. Self-regulation was measured with the Exercise Goal-Setting Scale (10 items) and the Exercise Planning and Scheduling
Britton W. Brewer, Karin E. Jeffers, Albert J. Petitpas and Judy L. Van Raalte
Two experiments were conducted to evaluate perceptions of three different psychological interventions in the context of sport injury rehabilitation. In Experiment 1, college students (N = 161) rated their perceptions of goal setting, imagery, or counseling as an adjunct to physical therapy for a hypothetical injured athlete. In Experiment 2, injured athletes (N = 20) received brief introductory sessions of goal setting, imagery, and counseling. Subjects’ perceptions were assessed immediately following each intervention. In both experiments, subjects displayed a preference for goal setting, although positive perceptions were obtained for all three interventions. Females’ perceptions of the interventions were significantly more positive than those of males in Experiment 1, but not in Experiment 2. The findings suggest that goal setting, imagery, and counseling are sufficiently credible to be examined in controlled outcome studies with injured athletes.
Yannis Theodorakis, Parascevi Malliou, Athanasios Papaioannou, Anastasia Beneca and Anastasia Filactakidou
This study examined the effect of goal setting on injury rehabilitation, specifically, differences in personal goal setting, self-efficacy, self-satisfaction, and performance between injured and noninjured subjects. Two experimental groups (32 women with knee injuries and 29 noninjured women) and one control group (n = 30) were used. Subjects performed four trials of a knee extension task on an isokinetic dynamometer. Prior to the third and fourth trials, subjects in the experimental groups set personal goals and completed self-efficacy and self-satisfaction scales. There were significant performance improvements for the two experimental groups; correlation coefficients between self-efficacy, self-satisfaction, goal setting, and performance were significant at the .001 level Personal goal setting was affected by level of ability and in turn had a direct effect on performance. Self-efficacy and self-satisfaction were affected by ability or performance but had no significant effect on personal goals or performance. The findings indicate that personal goal setting might be an important determinant for performance improvement in injury rehabilitation programs.
Nicola Brown and Yasmin Bowmer
support the development of self-regulatory and self-management skills, such as strategic planning, goal setting, and self-monitoring ( Dunning & Giallo, 2012 ). Another potential explanation for physical exertion being rated the highest PA barrier by both age groups, and being rated significantly higher
The present study tested the effects of self-efficacy, past performance, personal goal setting, and self-satisfaction on swimming performance. Participants (N = 42) performed four trials of a specific swimming task with 10-min intervals between each trial. During the third and fourth trials they performed trials after setting personal goals and completing self-efficacy and selfsatisfaction scales. Results showed significant improvement in level of performance in these two trials. Past performance, self-efficacy, self-satisfaction, and personal goal setting were predictors of performance at the third and the fourth trial. A LISREL VI path analysis indicated that past performance was the main determinant of future performance. Personal goal setting was affected by level of past performance, as well as by perceived self-efficacy and satisfaction. In a second stage of analysis, past performance was eliminated, and results supported the mediating role of personal goals between self-efficacy and performance.