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Jose A. Rodríguez-Marroyo, José G. Villa, Raúl Pernía and Carl Foster

, 5 , 6 this might have happened individually at another time. Consequently, the time analyzed in the different exercise intensity zones might have been altered. However, the general trend observed toward a greater contribution of high intensity exercise would not be affected. We consider that this

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Kapria-Jad Josaphat, Vicky Drapeau, David Thivel and Marie-Eve Mathieu

-suppressing factors and decreases in appetite-inducing hormones following a single bout of medium- to high-intensity exercise ( Gomez-Merino et al., 2004 ; Schubert et al., 2014 ; Ueda et al., 2009 ). The timing of energy intake has been shown to be of importance regarding the control of body weight ( Arble et

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Geraldine A. Naughton and John S. Carlson

A definitive measure for assessing the energy contribution of anaerobic pathways during exhaustive exercise remains inconclusive. The accumulated oxygen deficit (AOD) has been used in several studies to estimate energy contribution. The underlying assumptions of the AOD measure have been criticized for underestimating the true contribution of anaerobic metabolism in high intensity exercise. Indeed, the AOD measure has been the subject of much controversy. Several of the physiological exercise responses of children may lead to an even greater underestimation of the anaerobic energy contribution to high intensity exercise in children than adults when AOD measures are calculated.

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Barbara Baker, Eric Koch, Kevin Vicari and Kyle Walenta

studies 21 , 23 , 24 , 26 , 27 had some utilization of high-intensity exercise incorporated during the postacute phase. Overall, this literature involving high-intensity exercise during the postacute phase of SRC reports no adverse effects with high-intensity exercise. It should be noted that the studies

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Rossana C. Nogueira, Benjamin K. Weeks and Belinda Beck

( 13 ), where prepubertal children who participated in a 7-month jumping intervention had 1.4% more bone mineral content (BMC) at the hip than control 8 years after the cessation of the program. Regular high-intensity exercise focused on bone health for children has been widely recommended, as it may

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Mark Glaister and Conor Gissane

:10.1123/ijsnem.10.4.464 11099373 10.1123/ijsnem.10.4.464 7. Bell DG , Jacobs I , Zamecnik J . Effects of caffeine, ephedrine and their combination on time to exhaustion during high-intensity exercise . Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol . 1998 ; 77 ( 5 ): 427 – 433 . PubMed doi:10.1007/s

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Darren C. Treasure and David M. Newbery

This study examined the relationship between self-efficacy, exercise intensity, and feeling states in a sedentary population during and following an acute bout of exercise. Sixty sedentary participants were randomly assigned to either a moderate-intensity (45-50% age predicted Heart Rate Reserve; HRR), high-intensity exercise (70-75% HRR) group, or a no-exercise attention control group. Participants in both exercise groups experienced changes in feeling states across the course of the exercise bout. The moderate-intensity group reported more positive and fewer negative feeling states both during and after exercise than the high-intensity group. Participants in both exercise conditions were significantly more positively engaged than the attention-control group postexercise. Consistent with social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1986, 1997), the reciprocal determined relationship between self-efficacy and feeling states was found to be strongest in the high intensity exercise condition.

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Ronald J. Maughan

Creatine phosphate allows high rates of adenosine triphosphate resynthesis to occur in muscle and therefore plays a vital role in the performance of high-intensity exercise. Recent studies have shown that feeding large amounts of creatine (typically 20 g per day for 5 days) increases muscle total creatine (and phosphocreatine) content. The extent of the increase that is normally observed is inversely related to the presupplementation level. Vegetarians, who have a very low dietary creatine intake, generally show the largest increases. Creatine supplementation has been shown to increase performance in situations where the availability of creatine phosphate is important; thus, performance is improved in very high-intensity exercise and especially where repeated sprints are performed with short recovery periods. Creatine supplementation is widely practiced by athletes in many sports and does not contravene current doping regulations. There are no reports of harmful side effects at the recommended dosage.

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Elizabeth Applegate

Athletes use a variety of nutritional ergogenic aids to enhance performance. Most nutritional aids can be categorized as a potential energy source, an anabolic enhancer, a cellular component, or a recovery aid. Studies have consistently shown that carbohydrates consumed immediately before or after exercise enhance performance by increasing glycogen stores and delaying fatigue. Protein and amino acid supplementation may serve an anabolic role by optimizing body composition crucial in strength-related sports. Dietary antioxidants, such as vitamins C and E and carotenes, may prevent oxidative stress that occurs with intense exercise. Performance during high-intensity exercise, such as sprinting, may be improved with short-term creatine loading, and high-effort exercise lasting 1-7 min may be improved through bicarbonate loading immediately prior to activity. Caffeine dosing before exercise delays fatigue and may enhance performance of high-intensity exercise.

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Robert A. Swoap, Nancy Norvell, James E. Graves and Michael L. Pollock

This study examined the psychological and physiological effects of a 26-week aerobic exercise program on a sample of sedentary older men (n = 26) and women (n = 23). Subjects were randomly assigned to either a high intensity exercise group (80−85% of maximal heart rate reserve), a moderate intensity exercise group (65−70% of maximal heart rate reserve), or a no-exercise control group. Results indicated that subjects in the high intensity exercise group exhibited significant increases in aerobic capacity compared to the moderate intensity group. Both exercising groups improved aerobic capacity and had significant decreases in body weight compared to the control group. Exercising subjects also reported significantly fewer symptoms of depression at the end of the program, but not fewer than the control group. Overall, increases in VO2max were associated with decreases in depression.