-suppressing factors and decreases in appetite-inducing hormones following a single bout of medium- to high-intensity exercise ( Gomez-Merino et al., 2004 ; Schubert et al., 2014 ; Ueda et al., 2009 ). The timing of energy intake has been shown to be of importance regarding the control of body weight ( Arble et
Kapria-Jad Josaphat, Vicky Drapeau, David Thivel and Marie-Eve Mathieu
Shannon S. Block, Trevor R. Tooley, Matthew R. Nagy, Molly P. O’Sullivan, Leah E. Robinson, Natalie Colabianchi and Rebecca E. Hasson
acute effects of action-based video game play and intermittent exercise, performed at varying intensities (low, moderate, and high) on math performance in preadolescent children. Based on the findings of Phillips and Castelli ( 26 ), it was hypothesized that high-intensity exercise breaks would elicit a
Geraldine A. Naughton and John S. Carlson
A definitive measure for assessing the energy contribution of anaerobic pathways during exhaustive exercise remains inconclusive. The accumulated oxygen deficit (AOD) has been used in several studies to estimate energy contribution. The underlying assumptions of the AOD measure have been criticized for underestimating the true contribution of anaerobic metabolism in high intensity exercise. Indeed, the AOD measure has been the subject of much controversy. Several of the physiological exercise responses of children may lead to an even greater underestimation of the anaerobic energy contribution to high intensity exercise in children than adults when AOD measures are calculated.
Barbara Baker, Eric Koch, Kevin Vicari and Kyle Walenta
studies 21 , 23 , 24 , 26 , 27 had some utilization of high-intensity exercise incorporated during the postacute phase. Overall, this literature involving high-intensity exercise during the postacute phase of SRC reports no adverse effects with high-intensity exercise. It should be noted that the studies
Rossana C. Nogueira, Benjamin K. Weeks and Belinda Beck
( 13 ), where prepubertal children who participated in a 7-month jumping intervention had 1.4% more bone mineral content (BMC) at the hip than control 8 years after the cessation of the program. Regular high-intensity exercise focused on bone health for children has been widely recommended, as it may
Mark Glaister and Conor Gissane
:10.1123/ijsnem.10.4.464 11099373 10.1123/ijsnem.10.4.464 7. Bell DG , Jacobs I , Zamecnik J . Effects of caffeine, ephedrine and their combination on time to exhaustion during high-intensity exercise . Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol . 1998 ; 77 ( 5 ): 427 – 433 . PubMed doi:10.1007/s
Robert A. Swoap, Nancy Norvell, James E. Graves and Michael L. Pollock
This study examined the psychological and physiological effects of a 26-week aerobic exercise program on a sample of sedentary older men (n = 26) and women (n = 23). Subjects were randomly assigned to either a high intensity exercise group (80−85% of maximal heart rate reserve), a moderate intensity exercise group (65−70% of maximal heart rate reserve), or a no-exercise control group. Results indicated that subjects in the high intensity exercise group exhibited significant increases in aerobic capacity compared to the moderate intensity group. Both exercising groups improved aerobic capacity and had significant decreases in body weight compared to the control group. Exercising subjects also reported significantly fewer symptoms of depression at the end of the program, but not fewer than the control group. Overall, increases in VO2max were associated with decreases in depression.
Athletes use a variety of nutritional ergogenic aids to enhance performance. Most nutritional aids can be categorized as a potential energy source, an anabolic enhancer, a cellular component, or a recovery aid. Studies have consistently shown that carbohydrates consumed immediately before or after exercise enhance performance by increasing glycogen stores and delaying fatigue. Protein and amino acid supplementation may serve an anabolic role by optimizing body composition crucial in strength-related sports. Dietary antioxidants, such as vitamins C and E and carotenes, may prevent oxidative stress that occurs with intense exercise. Performance during high-intensity exercise, such as sprinting, may be improved with short-term creatine loading, and high-effort exercise lasting 1-7 min may be improved through bicarbonate loading immediately prior to activity. Caffeine dosing before exercise delays fatigue and may enhance performance of high-intensity exercise.
Ronald J. Maughan
Creatine phosphate allows high rates of adenosine triphosphate resynthesis to occur in muscle and therefore plays a vital role in the performance of high-intensity exercise. Recent studies have shown that feeding large amounts of creatine (typically 20 g per day for 5 days) increases muscle total creatine (and phosphocreatine) content. The extent of the increase that is normally observed is inversely related to the presupplementation level. Vegetarians, who have a very low dietary creatine intake, generally show the largest increases. Creatine supplementation has been shown to increase performance in situations where the availability of creatine phosphate is important; thus, performance is improved in very high-intensity exercise and especially where repeated sprints are performed with short recovery periods. Creatine supplementation is widely practiced by athletes in many sports and does not contravene current doping regulations. There are no reports of harmful side effects at the recommended dosage.
Megan E. O’Connell, Vanina Dal Bello-Haas, Margaret Crossley and Debra G. Morgan
Regular physical activity and exercise (PA&E) reduces cognitive aging, may delay dementia onset, and for persons with dementia, may slow progression and improve quality of life. Memory clinic patients and caregivers described their PA&E and completed the Older Persons’ Attitudes Toward Physical Activity and Exercise Questionnaire (OPAPAEQ). Caregivers and patients differed in their PA&E attitudes: patients were less likely to believe in the importance of PA&E for health promotion. PA&E attitudes were explored as predictors of self-reported exercise habits. Belief in the importance of high intensity exercise for health maintenance was the only variable that significantly predicted engagement in regular PA&E. Moreover, caregivers’ attitudes toward high intensity exercise predicted memory patients’ participation in PA&E. These findings may aid in development of exercise interventions for people with memory problems, and suggest that modification of specific attitudes toward exercise is an important component to ensure maximum participation and engagement in PA&E.