This study examined the role of feedback from cutaneous mechanoreceptors in the stability of human upright posture. A two-link, one degree of freedom, inverted pendulum model was constructed for the human body with ankle joint torque proportional to the delayed outputs from muscle receptors, joint receptors, and cutaneous mechanoreceptors in the foot. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations indicated that the use of mechanoreceptive information reduced the frequency range and the maximum peak-peak value of the dynamic response of the system. However, without the use of muscle receptors, the mechanoreceptive feedback could not stabilize the system. In addition, body movement of human subjects was measured when their balanced upright posture was disturbed by a transient, forward/backward movement of a supporting platform. The loss of or change in cutaneous mechanoreceptive sense in their feet was induced by (a) having healthy subjects stand on a soft surface and (b) testing neuropathic patients with loss of vibratory sensation in their feet. The results showed significant increases in frequency range and maximum peak-peak value of ankle rotation and velocity for subjects standing on a soft (vs. hard) surface and for neuropathic patients (vs. age- and gender-matched healthy subjects).
Jacob Buus Andersen and Thomas Sinkjaer
Due to the complexity of applying a well-defined stretch during human walking, most of our knowledge about the short latency stretch reflex modulation in humans is based on H-reflex studies. To illuminate the difference between the two methodologies, both types of reflexes were evoked in the same subjects, same experiment. Stretch reflexes were evoked via a stretch device capable of evoking stretch reflexes of the human soleus muscle during walking. H-reflexes were elicited by an electrical stimulation of the tibial nerve at the popliteal fossa at the knee. A significantly different modulation of the two reflexes was found in the late stance where the stretch reflex decreased in relation to the H-reflex. This was consistent with an unloading of the muscle spindles during the push-off in late stance, suggesting a complex alpha-gamma coactivation, if any, at this time of the step. The soleus stretch reflex and H-reflex were compared during the stance phase of walking and sitting at matched soleus EMG activity. No difference was found in the amplitude of the stretch reflex. However, there was a significant decrease of the H-reflex during the stance phase of walking, consistent with a task-specific presynaptic mediated reflex control. It is proposed that the short latency stretch reflex during walking is not sensitive to such a presynaptic inhibition.
Jürgen Konczak, Kai Brommann and Karl Theodor Kalveram
Knowledge of how stiffness, damping, and the equilibrium position of specific limbs change during voluntary motion is important for understanding basic strategies of neuromotor control. Presented here is an algorithm for identifying time-dependent changes in joint stiffness, damping, and equilibrium position of the human forearm. The procedure requires data from only a single trial. The method relies neither on an analysis of the resonant frequency of the arm nor on the presence of an external bias force. Its validity was tested with a simulated forward model of the human forearm. Using the parameter estimations as forward model input, the angular kinematics (model output) were reconstructed and compared to the empirically measured data. Identification of mechanical impedance is based on a least-squares solution of the model equation. As a regularization technique and to improve the temporal resolution of the identification process, a moving temporal window with a variable width was imposed. The method's performance was tested by (a) identifying a priori known hypothetical time-series of stiffness, damping, and equilibrium position, and (b) determining impedance parameters from recorded single-joint forearm movements during a hold and a goal-directed movement task. The method reliably reconstructed the original angular kinematics of the artificial and human data with an average positional error of less than 0.05 rad for movement amplitudes of up to 0.9 rad, and did not yield hypermetric trajectories like previous procedures not accounting for damping.
William R. Leonard
This paper examines the evolutionary origins of human dietary and activity patterns, and their implications for understanding modern health problems. Humans have evolved distinctive nutritional characteristics associated the high metabolic costs of our large brains. The evolution of larger hominid brain size necessitated the adoption of foraging strategies that both provided high quality foods, and required larger ranges and activity budgets. Over time, human subsistence strategies have become ever more efficient in obtaining energy with minimal time and effort. Today, populations of the industrialized world live in environments characterized by low levels of energy expenditure and abundant food supplies contributing to growing rates of obesity. Analyses of trends in dietary intake and body weight in the US over the last 50 years indicate that the dramatic rise in obesity cannot be explained solely by increased energy consumption. Rather, declines in activity are also important. Further, we find that recent recommendations on physical activity have the potential to bring daily energy expenditure levels of industrialized societies surprisingly close to those observed among subsistence-level populations. These findings highlight the importance of physical activity in promoting nutritional health and show the utility of evolutionary approaches for developing public health recommendations.
Joseph F. Seay, Jeffery M. Haddad, Richard E.A. van Emmerik and Joseph Hamill
Increases in movement variability have previously been observed to be a hallmark property of cooraination changes between coupled oscillators that occur as movement frequency is scaled. Prior research on the walk-run transition in human locomotion has also demonstrated increases in variability around the transition region, supporting predictions of nonequilibrium phase transitions (Diedrich & Warren, 1995). The current study examined the coordinative patterns of both intra- and inter-limb couplings around the walk-run transition using two different temporal manipulations of locomotor velocity as a control parameter in healthy young participants (N = 11). Coordination variability did not increase before the transition. The nature of the change in continuous relative phase variability between gait modes was coupling-specific, and varying the time spent at each velocity did not have an overall effect on gait transition dynamics. Lower extremity inter-limb coordination dynamics were more sensitive to changes in treadmill velocity than intra-limb coordination. The results demonstrate the complexity of segmental coordination change in human locomotion, and question the applicability of dynamical bimanual coordination models to human gait transitions.
Toshimasa Yanai and James G. Hay
The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that, in human running at a given speed, runners select the combination of cycle rate (CR) and cycle length (CL) that minimizes the power generated by the muscles. A 2-D model of a runner consisting of a trunk and two legs was defined. A force actuator controlled the length of each leg, and a torque actuator controlled the amplitude and frequency of the backward and forward swing of each leg. The sum of the powers generated by the actuators was determined for a range of CRs at each of a series of speeds. The CR and CL vs. speed relationships selected for the model were derived from a series of CR and CL combinations that required the least power at each speed. Two constraints were imposed: the maximum amplitude of the forward and backward swing of the legs (±50°) and the minimum ground contact time needed to maintain steady-state running (0.12 sec). The CR vs. speed and CL vs. speed relationships derived on the basis of a minimum power strategy showed a pattern similar to those reported for longitudinal (within-subjects) analyses of human running. The anatomical constraint set a limit on the maximum CL attainable at a given speed, and the temporal constraint made CL decrease at high speeds. It was concluded that the process for selecting CL-CR combinations for human running has characteristics similar to the process for solving a constrained optimization problem.
Jaclyn B. Caccese and Thomas W. Kaminski
The Balance Error Scoring System (BESS) is the current standard for assessing postural stability in concussed athletes on the sideline. However, research has questioned the objectivity and validity of the BESS, suggesting that while certain subcategories of the BESS have sufficient reliability to be used in evaluation of postural stability, the total score is not reliable, demonstrating limited interrater and intrarater reliability. Recently, a computerized BESS test was developed to automate scoring.
To compare computerderived BESS scores with those taken from 3 trained human scorers.
Interrater reliability study.
Athletic training room.
NCAA Division I student athletes (53 male, 58 female; 19 ± 2 y, 168 ± 41 cm, 69 ± 4 kg).
Subjects were asked to perform the BESS while standing on the Tekscan (Boston, MA) MobileMat® BESS. The MobileMat BESS software displayed an error score at the end of each trial. Simultaneously, errors were recorded by 3 separate examiners. Errors were counted using the standard BESS scoring criteria.
Main Outcome Measures:
The number of BESS errors was computed for the 6 stances from the software and each of the 3 human scorers. Interclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to compare errors for each stance scored by the MobileMat BESS software with each of 3 raters individually. The ICC values were converted to Fisher Z scores, averaged, and converted back into ICC values.
The double-leg, single-leg, and tandem-firm stances resulted in good agreement with human scorers (ICC = .999, .731, and .648). All foam stances resulted in fair agreement.
Our results suggest that the MobileMat BESS is suitable for identifying BESS errors involving each of the 6 stances of the BESS protocol. Because the MobileMat BESS scores consistently and reliably, this system can be used with confidence by clinicians as an effective alternative to scoring the BESS.
Scott O. Cloyd, Mont Hubbard and LeRoy W. Alaways
Feedback control of a human-powered single-track bicycle is investigated through the use of a linearized dynamical model in order to develop feedback gains that can be implemented by a human pilot in an actual vehicle. The object of the control scheme is to satisfy two goals: balance and tracking. The pilot should be able not only to keep the vehicle upright but also to direct the forward motion as desired. The two control inputs, steering angle and rider lean angle, are assumed to be determined by the rider as a product of feedback gains and “measured” values of the state variables: vehicle lean, lateral deviation from the desired trajectory, and their derivatives. Feedback gains are determined through linear quadratic regulator theory. This results in two control schemes, a “full” optimal feedback control and a less complicated technique that is more likely to be usable by an inexperienced pilot. Theoretical optimally controlled trajectories are compared with experimental trajectories in a lane change maneuver.
Kathryn E. Keenan, Saikat Pal, Derek P. Lindsey, Thor F. Besier and Gary S. Beaupre
Cartilage material properties provide important insights into joint health, and cartilage material models are used in whole-joint finite element models. Although the biphasic model representing experimental creep indentation tests is commonly used to characterize cartilage, cartilage short-term response to loading is generally not characterized using the biphasic model. The purpose of this study was to determine the short-term and equilibrium material properties of human patella cartilage using a viscoelastic model representation of creep indentation tests. We performed 24 experimental creep indentation tests from 14 human patellar specimens ranging in age from 20 to 90 years (median age 61 years). We used a finite element model to reproduce the experimental tests and determined cartilage material properties from viscoelastic and biphasic representations of cartilage. The viscoelastic model consistently provided excellent representation of the short-term and equilibrium creep displacements. We determined initial elastic modulus, equilibrium elastic modulus, and equilibrium Poisson’s ratio using the viscoelastic model. The viscoelastic model can represent the short-term and equilibrium response of cartilage and may easily be implemented in whole-joint finite element models.
Saunders N. Whittlesey, Richard E.A. van Emmerik and Joseph Hamill
Many studies have assumed that the swing phase of human walking at preferred velocity is largely passive and thus highly analogous to the swing of an unforced pendulum. In other words, while swing-phase joint moments are generally nonzero during swing, it was assumed that they were either zero or at least negligibly small compared to gravity. While neglect of joint moments does not invalidate a study by default, it remains that the limitations of such an assumption have not been explored thoroughly. This paper makes five arguments that the swing phase cannot be passive, using both original data and the literature: (1) Computer simulations of the swing phase require muscular control to be accurate. (2) Swing-phase joint moments, while smaller than those during stance, are still greater than those due to gravity. (3) Gravity accounts for a minority of the total kinetics of a swing phase. (4) The kinetics due to gravity do not have the pattern needed to develop a normal swing phase. (5) There is no correlation between pendular swing times and human walking periods in overground walking. The conclusion of this paper is that the swing phase must be an actively controlled process, and should be assumed to be passive only when a study does not require a quantitative result. This conclusion has significant implications for many areas of gait research, including clinical study, control theory, and mechanical modeling.