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Brian M. Wood, Herman Pontzer, Jacob A. Harris, Audax Z.P. Mabulla, Marc T. Hamilton, Theodore W. Zderic, Bret A. Beheim and David A. Raichlen

, O. ( 2019 ). mitml: Tools for Multiple Imputation in Multilevel Modeling. R package version 0.3-7 . Retrieved from https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=mitml Handy , S.L. , Boarnet , M.G. , Ewing , R. , & Killingsworth , R.E. ( 2002 ). How the built environment affects physical activity

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Sarah G. Sanders, Elizabeth Yakes Jimenez, Natalie H. Cole, Alena Kuhlemeier, Grace L. McCauley, M. Lee Van Horn and Alberta S. Kong

. Accelerometer files were read into R and summarized with package GGIR (version 1.5; open source software maintained by Vincent van Hees: https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/GGIR/index.html ), using the Euclidean Norm Minus One metric and with no imputation. 15 – 17 The auto-calibration and detection of

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Jesse C. Christensen, Caitlin J. Miller, Ryan D. Burns and Hugh S. West

patient for KOS-ADL (final score−admission score) and NPRS (admission score−final score) outcomes. All patients in the analysis completed the patient-reported outcomes at both time points; therefore, there was no concern for response bias or potential estimate errors based on statistical imputation for

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James J. Annesi

obtained from previous research with different research goals. 19 , 21 After confirming that the 13% of missing cases met the criteria for being missing at random, 34 the expectation-maximization algorithm 35 was used for imputation within the intention-to-treat format. For analyses of score changes and

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Mark A. Tully, Ilona I. McMullan, Nicole E. Blackburn, Jason J. Wilson, Laura Coll-Planas, Manuela Deidda, Paolo Caserotti, Dietrich Rothenbacher and on behalf of the SITLESS group

level of missing data of 5–6% in the variables of LSNS-6, DGLS-6, MVPA, SB, and LPA (Table  1 ), multi-imputation was applied using an expectation maximization approach in SPSS (version 25; IBM Corp., Armonk, NY). A multilevel linear regression analysis was carried out which addressed clustering by

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Samantha F. Ehrlich, Amanda J. Casteel, Scott E. Crouter, Paul R. Hibbing, Monique M. Hedderson, Susan D. Brown, Maren Galarce, Dawn P. Coe, David R. Bassett and Assiamira Ferrara

start (calendar date) of the assessment period ( Keadle et al., 2014 ). Diaries also allow participants to report what they were doing during periods of non-wear, which can provide contextual information, which may potentially allow for imputation (i.e., of MET values for activities they reportedly

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Samantha M. Ross, Ellen Smit, Joonkoo Yun, Kathleen Bogart, Bridget Hatfield and Samuel W. Logan

/are there: (1) a park or playground, or (2) a recreation center, community center, or boys’ and girls’ club.” Missing data for child’s sex, race, and Hispanic ethnicity were treated using a hot-deck imputation method, while missingness for highest education of the primary adult respondent for household and

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Leticia Oseguera, Dan Merson, C. Keith Harrison and Sue Rankin

representative as possible of the total sample, resulting in a weighted dataset of 8,018. The dataset was imputed to maintain sample size using the maximum likelihood estimation-based Expectation-Maximization (EM) data imputation method ( Allison, 2003 ; Graham, 2009 ; Musil, Warner, Yobas, & Jones, 2002 ) in

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Terese Wilhelmsen, Marit Sørensen and Ørnulf N. Seippel

platforms for the analyses. To handle missing values in the data, we used the R package “Multivariate Imputation by Chained Equations (MICE)” ( Van Buuren & Groothuis-Oudshoorn, 2011 ). To perform the two-step fsQCA analyses ( Schneider & Wagemann, 2006 ), we used the R package “QCAQUI” ( Dusa, 2007

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Danielle Nesbitt, Sergio Molina, Ryan Sacko, Leah E. Robinson, Ali Brian and David Stodden

.J. , & Lipsitz , S.R. ( 2001 ). Multiple imputation in practice: Comparison of software packages for regression models with missing variables . The American Statistician , 55 ( 3 ), 244 – 254 . 10.1198/000313001317098266 Keller , J. , Lamenoise , J.M. , Testa , M. , Golomer , E. , & Rosey , F