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James A. Betts, Javier T. Gonzalez, Louise M. Burke, Graeme L. Close, Ina Garthe, Lewis J. James, Asker E. Jeukendrup, James P. Morton, David C. Nieman, Peter Peeling, Stuart M. Phillips, Trent Stellingwerff, Luc J.C. van Loon, Clyde Williams, Kathleen Woolf, Ron Maughan and Greg Atkinson

 = 10. This approach breaks the assumption of independence of cases, inflates degrees of freedom, and can be misleading: Indeed, within-subjects correlations between two variables measured over time may be different from between-subjects correlations between two variables measured at the same point in

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Tammy Sheehy, Sam Zizzi, Kristen Dieffenbach and Lee-Ann Sharp

the physical and mental strength that are deemed critical for coaching ( West, Green, Brackenridge, & Woodward, 2001 ). It may be particularly important that female coaches, at least outwardly, ascribe to masculine norms of strength and independence to maintain their coaching careers. An interesting

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K. Andrew R. Richards, Nicholas Washburn and Ye Hoon Lee

independence of the constructs and is ensured when AVE for a construct is greater than the correlations between that construct and others in the model ( Teo et al., 2009 ). Structural equation modeling After verifying the factor structure of the measurement model, latent variable analyses proceeded into

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Jeffery Kurt Ward, Peter A. Hastie and Kamden Strunk

, linearity was assessed by partial regression plots and a plot of studentized residuals against the predicted values. A Durbin–Watson statistic of 1.840 showed that there was independence of these residuals. Homoscedasticity was also verified through a visual inspection of a plot of studentized residuals

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Siu-Ming Choi, Raymond Kim-Wai Sum, Tristan Wallhead, Amy Sau-Ching Ha, Cindy Hui-Ping Sit, Deng-Yau Shy and Feng-Min Wei

teachers to recognize and reinforce their experience of various physical activities. The Current Study The process of operationalizing PL within a PE teacher education program includes prioritizing “student enjoyment, developing independence, mastering physical skills, learning to work with others, and

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Donna L. Goodwin, David A. Fitzpatrick, Robin Thurmeier and Carol Hall

This phenomenological study explored the decision-making experience of parents whose children joined Special Olympics programs. The experiences of 16 families with children 10-22 years old were gathered through interviews, artifacts, and field notes. Three themes emerged from the thematic analysis (a) thoughtful instruction, (b) finding the fit, and (c) security of acceptance. Parents sought instructors who were interested in building relationships with their children and creating anxiety-free instructional environments for them. A good program fit occurred when instructors had expectations for motor skill development and increased independence. Parents also preferred environments that encouraged meaningful peer interactions. The findings were interpreted within the context of self-determination theory.

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Doug Cooper and Justine Allen

independence. C3’s description of his work with a paddler indicates a structured process of development of competence that empowers future engagement: . . . in conversation we managed to get to the point where after the first repetition, which he didn’t perform at all well, we managed to look at the strokes

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Ross Wadey, Kylie Roy-Davis, Lynne Evans, Karen Howells, Jade Salim and Ceri Diss

physical strength, training smarter rather than harder, greater or less independence, and more authentic and greater understanding of self. Regarding less physical strength, one SPC reported, “Before he trained for aesthetic reasons—to look good according to society. But this didn’t enhance his performance

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Philip D. Imholte, Jedediah E. Blanton and Michelle M. McAlarnen

experiences and interactions with his teammates. He used the team’s culture to influence group behavior by managing the group’s emotional responses (as well as his own). This athlete used creative approaches to solve problems and demonstrated independence throughout the season. The investigator collected

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Courtney W. Hess, Stacy L. Gnacinski and Barbara B. Meyer

among youth ( Richardson et al., 2014 ) and increased functional independence after a traumatic brain injury among adults ( Körner, 2010 ). In the sport domain, sports-medicine practitioners from the United Kingdom reported their practice approach for working with athletes during the 2012 Summer Olympic