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Renato Barroso, Diego F. Salgueiro, Everton C. do Carmo and Fábio Y. Nakamura

Purpose:

To assess swimmers’ session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) after standardized sets of interval swimming training performed at the same relative intensity but with different total volume and repetition distance.

Methods:

Thirteen moderately trained swimmers (21.1 ± 1.1 y, 178 ± 6 cm, 74.1 ± 8.3 kg, 100-m freestyle 60.2 ± 2.9 s) performed 4 standardized sets (10 × 100-m, 20 × 100-m, 10 × 200-m, and 5 × 400-m) at the same relative intensity (ie, critical speed), and 1 coach (age 31 y, 7 y coaching experience) rated their efforts. Swimmers’ sRPE was assessed 30 min after the training session. Coach sRPE was collected before each training session. Internal load was calculated by multiplying sRPE by session duration.

Results:

When bouts with the same repetition distance and different volumes (10 × 100-m vs 20 × 100-m) are compared, sRPE and internal load are higher in 20 × 100-m bouts. When maintaining constant volume, sRPE and internal load (20 × 100-m, 10 × 200-m, and 5 × 400-m) are higher only in 5 × 400-m bouts. The coach’s and swimmers’ sRPE differed in 10 × 200-m and 5 × 400-m.

Conclusions:

These results indicate that sRPE in swimming is affected not only by intensity but also by volume and repetition distance. In addition, swimmers’ and the coach’s sRPE were different when longer repetition distances were used during training sessions. Therefore, care should be taken when prescribing swimming sessions with longer volume and/or longer repetition distances.

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Naiandra Dittrich, Ricardo Dantas de Lucas, Ralph Beneke and Luiz Guilherme Antonacci Guglielmo

The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the time to exhaustion (TE) and the physiological responses at continuous and intermittent (ratio 5:1) maximal lactate steady state (MLSS) in well-trained runners. Ten athletes (32.7 ± 6.9 y, VO2max 61.7 ± 3.9 mL · kg−1 · min−1) performed an incremental treadmill test, three to five 30-min constant-speed tests to determine the MLSS continuous and intermittent (5 min of running, interspaced by 1 min of passive rest), and 2 randomized TE tests at such intensities. Two-way ANOVA with repeated measures was used to compare the changes in physiological variables during the TE tests and between continuous and intermittent exercise. The intermittent MLSS velocity (MLSSint = 15.26 ± 0.97 km/h) was higher than in the continuous model (MLSScon = 14.53 ± 0.93 km/h), while the TE at MLSScon was longer than MLSSint (68 ± 11 min and 58 ± 15 min, P < .05). Regarding the cardiorespiratory responses, VO2 and respiratory-exchange ratio remained stable during both TE tests while heart rate, ventilation, and rating of perceived exertion presented a significant increase in the last portion of the tests. The results showed a higher tolerance to exercising during MLSScon than during MLSSint in trained runners. Thus, the training volume of an extensive interval session (ratio 5:1) designed at MLSS intensity should take into consideration this higher speed at MLSS and also the lower TE than with continuous exercise.

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Brandon M. Kistler, Peter J. Fitschen, Sushant M. Ranadive, Bo Fernhall and Kenneth R. Wilund

The purpose of this study was to document the physiological changes that occur in a natural bodybuilder during prolonged contest preparation for a proqualifying contest. During the 26-week preparation, the athlete undertook a calorically restrictive diet with 2 days of elevated carbohydrate intake per week, increased cardiovascular (CV) training, and attempted to maintain resistance-training load. The athlete was weighed twice a week and body composition was measured monthly by DXA. At baseline and every 2 weeks following CV structure and function was measured using a combination of ultrasound, applanation tonometry, and heart rate variability (HRV). Cardiorespiratory performance was measured by VO2peak at baseline, 13 weeks, and 26 weeks. Body weight (88.6 to 73.3 Kg, R 2 = .99) and percent body fat (17.5 to 7.4%) were reduced during preparation. CV measurements including blood pressure (128/61 to 113/54mmHg), brachial pulse wave velocity (7.9 to 5.8m/s), and measures of wave reflection all improved. Indexed cardiac output was reduced (2.5 to 1.8L/m2) primarily due to a reduction in resting heart rate (71 to 44bpm), and despite an increase in ejection faction (57.9 to 63.9%). Assessment of HRV found a shift in the ratio of low to high frequency (209.2 to 30.9%). Absolute VO2 was minimally reduced despite weight loss resulting in an increase in relative VO2 (41.9 to 47.7ml/Kg). In general, this prolonged contest preparation technique helped the athlete to improve body composition and resulted in positive CV changes, suggesting that this method of contest preparation appears to be effective in natural male bodybuilders.

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Jeffrey M. Janot, Kelly A. Auner, Talisa M. Emberts, Robert M. Kaatz, Kaelyn M. Matteson, Emily A. Muller and Mitchell Cook

Purpose:

Previous research has stated that dryland sled pulling trains first-step quickness in hockey players. Further research has demonstrated that off-ice horizontal training (sled pull, parachute, etc) relates well to on-ice acceleration and speed. However, there is limited literature pertaining to on-ice resistance training that aims to enhance speed and acceleration in hockey players. The purpose of the current study was to determine if on-ice BungeeSkate training would improve on-ice speed and acceleration in youth hockey players.

Methods:

Twenty-three Peewee and Bantam hockey players (age 11–14) were recruited, with 20 participants completing the study. Pretesting and posttesting consisted of an on-ice 44.8-m speed test, a 6.1-m acceleration test, and a 15.2-m full-speed test. The training protocol consisted of 8 sessions of 5 BungeeSkate training exercises per session, 2 times per week for a 4-wk period.

Results:

The results of this study showed that speed and top speed were significantly increased (P < .05) by 4.2% and 4.3%, respectively. Acceleration was also slightly improved but not significantly.

Conclusions:

A 4-wk BungeeSkate training intervention can improve acceleration and speed in youth hockey players. This training method could be a valid adjunct to existing strategies to improve skill development in hockey and is shown to improve speed and acceleration in relatively short training sessions. This may be most advantageous for hockey coaches and players who are looking to maximize training benefits with limited ice time.

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Nattai R. Borges, Aaron T. Scanlan, Peter R. Reaburn and Thomas M. Doering

(END) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) sessions in masters and young cyclists. Methods Subjects A total of 10 masters (55.6 [5.0] y) and 8 young (25.9 [3.0] y) well-trained, male cyclists were recruited from local cycling and triathlon clubs (Table  1 ). Power calculations indicated 20

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Guy El Hajj Boutros, José A. Morais and Antony D. Karelis

, Oguma, & Paffenbarger, 2004 ). Altogether, this viewpoint will briefly focus on summarizing alternative/novel time-efficient approaches in physical activity toward healthy aging, which includes gaining a better understanding on the beneficial effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and high

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Blaine E. Arney, Reese Glover, Andrea Fusco, Cristina Cortis, Jos J. de Koning, Teun van Erp, Salvador Jaime, Richard P. Mikat, John P. Porcari and Carl Foster

study, 9 it was shown that the BORG-RPE and BORG-CR10, used as momentary ratings in the same sense as pioneered by Borg, 6 were strongly correlated ( r  = .95) on an intraindividual level and were thus interchangeable during incremental exercise testing and interval training. However, despite the

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Florence-Emilie Kinnafick, Cecilie Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Sam O. Shepherd, Oliver J. Wilson, Anton J.M. Wagenmakers and Christopher S. Shaw

intervention ( Biddle & Batterham, 2015 ) is high-intensity interval training (HIIT). HIIT typically involves repeated bouts of high-intensity exercise interspersed with periods of low-intensity recovery or rest ( Shepherd et al., 2015 ). HIIT, as an intervention approach for previously inactive adults, has

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Waynne F. Faria, Filipe R. Mendonça, Géssika C. Santos, Sarah G. Kennedy, Rui G.M. Elias and Antonio Stabelini Neto

improve body composition, metabolic profiles, and inflammatory state than any exercise modality performed alone ( 19 , 21 ). Given the poor adherence to exercise training programs in adolescents ( 12 , 41 ), high-intensity interval training (HIIT) emerges as a viable alternative to other training types

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Bianca Fernandes, Fabio Augusto Barbieri, Fernanda Zane Arthuso, Fabiana Araújo Silva, Gabriel Felipe Moretto, Luis Felipe Itikawa Imaizumi, Awassi Yophiwa Ngomane, Guilherme Veiga Guimarães and Emmanuel Gomes Ciolac

capacity, and walking ability. 15 – 18 However, little is known about the effects of physical exercise on cardiovascular autonomic function and its related variables in individuals with PD. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has emerged as a time-efficient strategy for improving several functional