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Akiko Imura, Yoichi Iino and Takeji Kojima

The fouetté turn in classical ballet dancing is a continuous turn with the whipping of the gesture leg and the arms and the bending and stretching of the supporting leg. The knowledge of the movement intensities of both legs for the turn would be favorable for the conditioning of the dancer’s body. The purpose of this study was to estimate the intensities. The hypothesis of this study was that the intensities were higher in the supporting leg than in the gesture leg. The joint torques of both legs were determined in the turns performed by seven experienced female classical ballet dancers with inverse dynamics using three high-speed cine cameras and a force platform. The hip abductor torque, knee extensor and plantar flexor torques of the supporting leg were estimated to be exerted up to their maximum levels and the peaks of the torques were larger than the peaks of their matching torques of the gesture leg. Thus, the hypothesis was partly supported. Training of the supporting leg rather than the gesture leg would help ballet dancers perform many revolutions of the fouetté turn continuously.

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Yuki Inaba, Shinsuke Yoshioka, Yoshiaki Iida, Dean C. Hay and Senshi Fukashiro

Lateral quickness is a crucial component of many sports. However, biomechanical factors that contribute to quickness in lateral movements have not been understood well. Thus, the purpose of this study was to quantify 3-dimensional kinetics of hip, knee, and ankle joints in side steps to understand the function of lower extremity muscle groups. Side steps at nine different distances were performed by nine male subjects. Kinematic and ground reaction force data were recorded, and net joint torque and work were calculated by a standard inverse-dynamics method. Extension torques and work done at hip, knee, and ankle joints contributed substantially to the changes in side step distances. On the other hand, hip abduction work was not as sensitive to the changes in the side step distances. The main roles of hip abduction torque and work were to accelerate the center of mass laterally in the earlier phase of the movement and to keep the trunk upright, but not to generate large power for propulsion.

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Scott R. Brown, Matt Brughelli, Peter C. Griffiths and John B. Cronin


While several studies have documented isokinetic knee strength in junior and senior rugby league players, investigations of isokinetic knee and hip strength in professional rugby union players are limited. The purpose of this study was to provide lower-extremity strength profiles and compare isokinetic knee and hip strength of professional rugby league and rugby union players.


32 professional rugby league and 25 professional rugby union players.


Cross-sectional analysis. Isokinetic dynamometry was used to evaluate peak torque and strength ratios of the dominant and nondominant legs during seated knee-extension/flexion and supine hip-extension/flexion actions at 60°/s.


Forwards from both codes were taller and heavier and had a higher body-mass index than the backs of each code. Rugby union forwards produced significantly (P < .05) greater peak torque during knee flexion in the dominant and nondominant legs (ES = 1.81 and 2.02) compared with rugby league forwards. Rugby league backs produced significantly greater hip-extension peak torque in the dominant and nondominant legs (ES = 0.83 and 0.77) compared with rugby union backs. There were no significant differences in hamstring-to-quadriceps ratios between code, position, or leg. Rugby union forwards and backs produced significantly greater knee-flexion-to-hip-extension ratios in the dominant and nondominant legs (ES = 1.49–2.26) than rugby union players.


It seems that the joint torque profiles of players from rugby league and union codes differ, which may be attributed to the different demands of each code.

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Fabien Dal Maso, Mickaël Begon and Maxime Raison

One approach to increasing the confidence of muscle force estimation via musculoskeletal models is to minimize the root mean square error (RMSE) between joint torques estimated from electromyographic-driven musculoskeletal models and those computed using inverse dynamics. We propose a method that reduces RMSE by selecting subsets of combinations of maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) trials that minimize RMSE. Twelve participants performed 3 elbow MVIC in flexion and in extension. An upper-limb electromyographic-driven musculoskeletal model was created to optimize maximum muscle stress and estimate the maximal isometric force of the biceps brachii, brachialis, brachioradialis, and triceps brachii. Maximal isometric forces were computed from all possible combinations of flexion-extension trials. The combinations producing the smallest RMSE significantly reduced the normalized RMSE to 7.4% compared with the combination containing all trials (9.0%). Maximal isometric forces ranged between 114–806 N, 64–409 N, 236–1511 N, and 556–3434 N for the brachii, brachialis, brachioradialis, and triceps brachii, respectively. These large variations suggest that customization is required to reduce the difference between models and actual participants’ maximal isometric force. While the smallest previously reported RMSE was 10.3%, the proposed method reduced the RMSE to 7.4%, which may increase the confidence of muscle force estimation.

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Robert J. Neal and Barry D. Wilson

Three-dimensional kinematics and kinetics for a double pendulum model golf swing were determined for 6 subjects, who were filmed by two phase-locked Photosonics cameras. The film was digitally analyzed. Abdel-Aziz and Karara's (1971) algorithm was used to determine three-dimensional spatial coordinates for the segment endpoints. Linear kinematic and kinetic data showed similarities with previous studies. The orientation of the resultant joint force at the wrists was in the direction of motion of the club center of gravity for most of the downswing. Such an orientation of the force vector would tend to prevent wrist uncocking. Indeterminate peak angular velocities for rotations about the X axis were reported. However, these peaks were due to computational instabilities that occurred when the club was perpendicular to the YZ plane. Furthermore, the motion of the club during the downswing was found to be nonplanar. Wrist uncocking appeared to be associated with the resultant joint torque and not the resultant joint force at the wrists. Torques reported in this study were consistent with those reported by Vaughan (1981).

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Elena J. Caruthers, Julie A. Thompson, Ajit M.W. Chaudhari, Laura C. Schmitt, Thomas M. Best, Katherine R. Saul and Robert A. Siston

Sit-to-stand transfer is a common task that is challenging for older adults and others with musculoskeletal impairments. Associated joint torques and muscle activations have been analyzed two-dimensionally, neglecting possible three-dimensional (3D) compensatory movements in those who struggle with sit-to-stand transfer. Furthermore, how muscles accelerate an individual up and off the chair remains unclear; such knowledge could inform rehabilitation strategies. We examined muscle forces, muscleinduced accelerations, and interlimb muscle force differences during sit-to-stand transfer in young, healthy adults. Dynamic simulations were created using a custom 3D musculoskeletal model; static optimization and induced acceleration analysis were used to determine muscle forces and their induced accelerations, respectively. The gluteus maximus generated the largest force (2009.07 ± 277.31 N) and was a main contributor to forward acceleration of the center of mass (COM) (0.62 ± 0.18 m/s2), while the quadriceps opposed it. The soleus was a main contributor to upward (2.56 ± 0.74 m/s2) and forward acceleration of the COM (0.62 ± 0.33 m/s2). Interlimb muscle force differences were observed, demonstrating lower limb symmetry cannot be assumed during this task, even in healthy adults. These findings establish a baseline from which deficits and compensatory strategies in relevant populations (eg, elderly, osteoarthritis) can be identified.

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Eric J. Sprigings and Doris I. Miller

Optimized computer simulation, using a mathematical model of a diver, was employed to gain insight into the primary mechanical factors responsible for producing height and rotation in dives from the reverse group. The performance variable optimized was the total angular displacement of the diver as measured from last contact to the point where the diver's mass center passed the level of the springboard or platform. The times of onset, and lengths of activation for the joint torque actuators, were used as the control variables for the optimization process. The results of the platform simulation indicated that the magnitude of the hip torque was approximately twice that generated by the knee joint during the early extension phase of the takeoff. Most of the knee extension for the simulation model coincided with the period of reduced hip torque during the later phase of takeoff, suggesting that the knee torque served mainly to stabilize the lower limbs so that the force from the powerful hip extension could be delivered through to the platform. Maintaining a forward tilt of the lower legs (~50° from the horizontal) during hip and knee extension appeared to be paramount for successful reverse somersaults. Although the movement pattern exhibited by the springboard model was limited by the torque activation strategy employed, the results provided insight into the timing of knee extension. Peak knee extension torque was generated just prior to maximum springboard depression, allowing the diver's muscular efforts to be exerted against a stiffer board. It was also apparent that the diver must maintain an anatomically strong knee position (~140°) at maximum depression to resist the large upward force being exerted by the springboard against the diver's feet. The optimization process suggested that, as the number of reverse somersaults increases, both the angle of the lower legs with respect to the springboard and the angle of knee extension at completion of takeoff should decrease.

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Original Research Validity and Reliability of Methods for Testing Vertical Jumping Performance Herbert Hatze * 5 1998 14 2 127 140 10.1123/jab.14.2.127 Research Relationship between Knee Joint Torque, Velocity, and Muscle Activation: Considerations for Musculoskeletal Modeling David Hawkins

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.1123/jab.14.1.40 Maximum Active Resultant Knee Joint Torques in Children with Cerebral Palsy Jack R. Engsberg * Kenneth S. Olree * Sandy A. Ross * Tae S. Park * 2 1998 14 1 52 61 10.1123/jab.14.1.52 The Isometric Knee Extension Moment-Angle Relationship: Experimental Data and Predictions Based on

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1993 9 4 315 328 10.1123/jab.9.4.315 Book Reviews Book Reviews 11 1993 9 4 329 330 10.1123/jab.9.4.329 Research What Is a Joint Torque for Joints Spanned by Multiarticular Muscles? 11 1993 9 4 333 336 10.1123/jab.9.4.333 jab Journal of Applied Biomechanics 1065-8483 1543-2688 1993 9 4 10.1123/jab.1993