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Stephen M. Cornish, Jeremie E. Chase, Eric M. Bugera and Gordon G. Giesbrecht

. , Kraemer , W.J. , Hämäläinen , M. , … Mero , A.A. ( 2014 ). Acute leukocyte, cytokine and adipocytokine responses to maximal and hypertrophic resistance exercise bouts . European Journal of Applied Physiology, 114 ( 12 ), 2607 – 2616 . PubMed ID: 25145982 doi:10.1007/s00421-014-2979-6 10.1007/s

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D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Kathleen Woolf and Louise Burke

e but is influenced by inflammation and malnutrition Vitamin C Citrus fruit, melon, berries, tomatoes, peppers, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, potatoes Most common measures: fasting plasma or serum ascorbic acid (acute status) and leukocyte ascorbic acid (tissue stores) e

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Tom Clifford

—and suppressing these effects could restore immune-related dysfunction ( Trappe & Liu, 2013 ). Indeed, a number of studies have reported that even at rest, older adults exhibit greater levels of proinflammatory cytokines and leukocytes—both systemically and in muscle tissue—giving rise to a chronic low

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Matti Hyvärinen, Sarianna Sipilä, Janne Kulmala, Harto Hakonen, Tuija H. Tammelin, Urho M. Kujala, Vuokko Kovanen and Eija K. Laakkonen

in elderly people: A five-year follow-up study . Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, 6 ( 2 ), 133 – 1440 . doi: 10.1123/japa.6.2.133 Sillanpää , E. , Niskala , P. , Laakkonen , E.K. , Ponsot , E. , Alén , M. , Kaprio , J. , … Sipilä , S. ( 2017 ). Leukocyte and skeletal muscle

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Mitchell Naughton, Joanna Miller and Gary J. Slater

induction of factors, such as leukocytes, macrophages, and ROS, crucial for optimal muscle fiber regeneration. The divergence between EIMD and IIMD includes the initial damage stimulus, the greater magnitude of secondary damage in IIMD, and the delayed progression of the secondary, inflammatory damage

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Lindy M. Castell, David C. Nieman, Stéphane Bermon and Peter Peeling

increased CHO availability might combat exercise-induced immunodepression via the stress hormone (cortisol) response to exercise. The effects of an increased consumption of CHO (60 g/hr) include the attenuated trafficking of some leukocyte subsets; a decrease in neutrophil degranulation was prevented; an

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Gabriella Berwig Möller, Maria Júlia Vieira da Cunha Goulart, Bruna Bellincanta Nicoletto, Fernanda Donner Alves and Cláudia Dornelles Schneider

(leukocyte count, TGF-β, IL-10, and IFN-γ); and sport performance Lower duration ( p  = .047), number of symptoms per episodes ( p  = .035), and number of infected days ( p  < .001) of respiratory events. There were no differences in immunity and inflammatory parameters and exercise performance Amateur

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André L. Estrela, Aline Zaparte, Jeferson D. da Silva, José Cláudio Moreira, James E. Turner and Moisés E. Bauer

.B. , Wilsgard , L. , & Osterud , B. ( 1991 ). Biphasic changes in leukocytes induced by strenuous exercise . European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, 62 ( 3 ), 157 – 161 . PubMed doi:10.1007/BF00643735 10.1007/BF00643735 Heaney , J.L. , Carroll , D. , & Phillips , A

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Kizzy Antualpa, Marcelo Saldanha Aoki and Alexandre Moreira

(sIgA) after a major academic exam . Int J Psychophysiol . 2000 ; 37 ( 3 ): 219 – 32 . 10.1016/S0167-8760(99)00112-9 11. Dhabhar FS , McEwen BS . Acute stress enhances while chronic stress suppresses cell-mediated immunity in vivo: a potential role for leukocyte trafficking . Brain Behav Immun

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Alon Eliakim, Bareket Falk, Neil Armstrong, Fátima Baptista, David G. Behm, Nitzan Dror, Avery D. Faigenbaum, Kathleen F. Janz, Jaak Jürimäe, Amanda L. McGowan, Dan Nemet, Paolo T. Pianosi, Matthew B. Pontifex, Shlomit Radom-Aizik, Thomas Rowland and Alex V. Rowlands

. Results express the percentage of relative differences from Pre to Post, Post2h and Post24h. Upper respiratory symptoms (URS) and training load were quantified. Results At M2, we observed smaller increases of leukocytes (M1: 14.0 ± 36.3/M2: 2.33 ± 23.0%) and neutrophils (M1: 57.1 ± 71.6/M2: 38.9 ± 49