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Keren Susan Cherian, Ashok Sainoji, Balakrishna Nagalla and Venkata Ramana Yagnambhatt

. Sport Nutrition: An Introduction to Energy Production and Performance . Champaign, IL : Human Kinetics ; 2010 . 34. Koehler K , Hoerner NR , Gibbs JC , et al . Low energy availability in exercising men is associated with reduced leptin and insulin but not with changes in other metabolic

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Hans Braun, Judith von Andrian-Werburg, Wilhelm Schänzer and Mario Thevis

; 25 ( 7 ): 1816 – 23 . PubMed doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181e7fbdd 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181e7fbdd 50. Slater J , Brown R , McLay-Cooke R , Black K . Low energy availability in exercising women: historical perspectives and future directions . Sports Med . 2016 ; 47 ( 2 ): 207 – 20 . PubMed doi

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Ben-El Berkovich, Aliza H. Stark, Alon Eliakim, Dan Nemet and Tali Sinai

. Evidence of negative consequences of low-energy availability on physical performance has been reported ( Mountjoy et al., 2018 ). Therefore, restricting dietary intake prior to competition may reduce an athlete’s overall abilities, despite the potential advantages of participating in a preferred weight

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Louise M. Burke, Asker E. Jeukendrup, Andrew M. Jones and Martin Mooses

of brief periods of controlled low energy availability within the endurance training framework. Problems associated with chronic or severe low energy availability, known as relative energy deficiency in sports, are well known ( Mountjoy et al., 2018 ); specific issues in relation to Athletics are

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-body oxidative capacity and endurance exercise performance following prolonged endurance exercise training in healthy, young males. Low Energy Availability Assessed by a Sport-Specific Questionnaire and Clinical Interview Indicative of Bone Health, Endocrine Profile and Cycling Performance in Competitive Male

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Helen G. Hanstock, Andrew D. Govus, Thomas B. Stenqvist, Anna K. Melin, Øystein Sylta and Monica K. Torstveit

-reported upper-respiratory symptoms (URS) or upper-respiratory illness (URI) in athletes. High training loads are commonly associated with immunological disturbances, such as decreases in salivary immunoglobulin-A (s-IgA)-secretion rate, 7 , 8 and elevated cortisol levels. 7 Furthermore, low energy

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Samuel G. Impey, Kelly M. Hammond, Robert Naughton, Carl Langan-Evans, Sam O. Shepherd, Adam P. Sharples, Jessica Cegielski, Kenneth Smith, Stewart Jeromson, David L. Hamilton, Graeme L. Close and James P. Morton

and determine the effects of such high protein availability on substrate metabolism and postexercise signaling responses. Finally, given that many elite cyclists are potentially in daily energy deficits ( Vogt et al., 2005 ) with low energy availability ( Loucks et al., 2011 ), and also that 3 g/kg BM

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Mathew Hillier, Louise Sutton, Lewis James, Dara Mojtahedi, Nicola Keay and Karen Hind

suppress menstrual function, and in this study, one third of women athletes reported amenorrhea in the last 12 months. It is possible that this figure is an underestimation because women using oral contraceptives were not excluded from the study. Low energy availability and disruption of menstrual

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Eric Tsz-Chun Poon, John O’Reilly, Sinead Sheridan, Michelle Mingjing Cai and Stephen Heung-Sang Wong

endocrine profiles involved in growth and repair ( Dolan et al., 2012b ). Key hormones related to bone metabolism, such as testosterone, cortisol, and vitamin D, may be downregulated at times of low energy availability to allow the body to conserve energy for essential processes ( Dolan et al., 2011 ). Yet

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Thomas Sawczuk, Ben Jones, Mitchell Welch, Clive Beggs, Sean Scantlebury and Kevin Till

URI incidence alone. Such a finding is perhaps unsurprising given the multifactorial risk factors of URI, including low energy availability, which can compromise immunity within 2 days, 32 poor sleep, which influences immune function via the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, 33 environmental