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David M. Shaw, Fabrice Merien, Andrea Braakhuis, Daniel Plews, Paul Laursen and Deborah K. Dulson

., Livingston, MT). Participants were not informed of their trial allocation. However, due to the difficulty masking the bitter taste of BD, achieving successful blinding was deemed unlikely. For the day prior to each experimental trial, participants were prescribed a diet consisting of 6 g/kg of carbohydrate

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Pedro L. Valenzuela, Guillermo Sánchez-Martínez, Elaia Torrontegi, Javier Vázquez-Carrión, Manuela González, Zigor Montalvo and Grégoire P. Millet

oxygen [FiO 2 ] = 21%). During RSH, athletes wore a mask connected to a portable hypoxia generator (Hypoxico Inc, New York, NY) that reduced FiO 2 to 14% (which corresponds to an altitude of approximately 3400 m) during the whole session, including rest periods. Previous authors have used a similar

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Stephen Pack, Monna Arvinen-Barrow, Stacy Winter and Brian Hemmings

 al., 2003 )—in their consultancy. Humor, as a form of interpersonal self-disclosure, renders the consultant “open for approval (or not)” ( Wheeless & Grotz, 1976 ) and consequently is an important factor in developing empathy. Self-defeating humor might also represent defensive denial or provide a mask to

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Dennis van Erck, Eric J. Wenker, Koen Levels, Carl Foster, Jos J. de Koning and Dionne A. Noordhof

test, corresponding to the manufacturer’s instructions. The mask that was used to collect respiratory data was also used to supply air to the participants. The mask was connected to a bag of air (hypoxic or normoxic), which contained air produced by the b-CAT High-Altitude (b-CAT BV, Tiel, the

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Adam C. King

masks whether the sloped surfaces can be used to detect subtle postural impairments not revealed during standard quiet standing. Nonetheless, the utility and sensitivity of sloped surfaces to detect postural control difference following a concussion requires further investigation. Conclusions The single

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Grégoire P. Millet and Kilian Jornet

is using a global positioning system HR monitor (Spartan Ultra; Suunto, Vantaa, Finland). During the preacclimatization period prior traveling to the Himalayas, he used a hypoxic tent (Hypoxico, New York, NY) for sleeping and a mask system (Hypoxico) for indoor training in NH either on ergocycle or

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Andrew O. Agbaje, Eero A. Haapala, Niina Lintu, Anna Viitasalo, Juuso Väistö, Sohaib Khan, Aapo Veijalainen, Tuomo Tompuri, Tomi Laitinen and Timo A. Lakka

had performed 2 years earlier at baseline. They were also allowed to practice cycling with the ergometer, using the pediatric mask, 10 minutes before lying in supine position. The children rested in this position for 15 minutes prior to commencing the exercise test protocol. The research physician

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Jennifer K. Sansom and Beverly D. Ulrich

covered in a low-pile carpet. Calibration of Oxygen Uptake Equipment A Cosmed K4b 2 portable oxygen uptake unit (Cosmed, Rome, Italy) was used to monitor participant’s pulmonary gas exchange concentrations while walking during each condition. Properly sized pediatric masks, mask headgear, and harnesses

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Mohamed Romdhani, Nizar Souissi, Yassine Chaabouni, Kacem Mahdouani, Tarak Driss, Karim Chamari and Omar Hammouda

, comfortably warm, fully dark, and quiet) and went to bed at ∼12:50. After being given ∼10 minutes to get used to their surroundings, they wore earplugs and eye masks and the 90-minute nap time started (from ∼13:00 to ∼14:30). In the N20 condition, participants spent the period between 12:50 and 14:00 watching a

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Abby R. Fleming, Nic Martinez, Larry H. Collins, Candi D. Ashley, Maureen Chiodini, Brian J. Waddell and Marcus W. Kilpatrick

each minute using the Borg 6–20 scale ( Borg, 1998 ). Expired gases were collected using a neoprene mask and analyzed continuously using a calibrated metabolic measurement cart (Medical Graphics, St. Paul, MN). The VO 2 peak was identified as the largest volume of O 2 consumed per minute during the