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Au Bich Thuy, Leigh Blizzard, Michael Schmidt, Pham Hung Luc, Costan Magnussen and Terence Dwyer

Background:

The Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) was developed as an improvement of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) for use in cross-cultural settings. This study compared the reliability and validity of GPAQ and IPAQ in Vietnam.

Methods:

251 adults were randomly selected from a population-based survey (n = 1978) of noncommunicable disease risk factors. GPAQ and IPAQ were administered on 2 occasions. Participants wore pedometers and logged their physical activity (PA) for 7 consecutive days.

Results:

Test-retest correlations of GPAQ measurements differed for participants (n = 153) with stable work patterns (work PA r = .43, total PA r = .39) and those (n = 98) with unstable work patterns (work PA r = −0.02, total PA r = −0.05). IPAQ measurements did not differ in this way. GPAQ reliability was poorer for transport (GPAQ r = .25, IPAQ r = .60) and for leisure (GPAQ r = .21, IPAQ r = .45) PA. GPAQ estimates of total PA for participants with stable work patterns were moderately correlated with IPAQ total PA (r = .32), steps per day (r = .39), and PA log (r = .31).

Conclusions:

The modifications made when designing GPAQ improved its reliability for persons with stable work patterns, but at the expense of poorer reliability for persons with more variable PA. GPAQ did not have superior validity to IPAQ.

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Tricia J. Hubbard, John E. Kovaleski and Thomas W. Kaminski

Context:

Measurement reliability is critical when new sports-medicine devices or techniques are developed.

Objective:

To determine the reliability of laxity measurements obtained from an instrumented ankle arthrometer.

Design:

Intratester reliability was examined using a test–retest design, and intertester reliability was assessed using the measurements recorded by 2 different examiners on a separate group of participants.

Setting:

Sports-medicine research laboratory.

Participants:

40 participants with no history of ankle injury, equally divided across the 2 studies.

Measurements:

Laxity measurements included anteroposterior (AP) displacement during loading to 125 N. Inversion–eversion (I–E) rotation was tested during loading to 4000 N-mm. The measures were analyzed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and dependent t tests.

Results:

Good to excellent ICCs (.80–.99) for intratester and intertester reliability. A significant difference in measures was observed between testers for both AP displacement and I–E rotation.

Conclusions:

Laxity measurements from an instrumented ankle arthrometer are reliable across test days and examiners

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Seong-Hee Park, Jae-Pil Ha and Daniel Mahony

While there is a relatively rich literature measuring curiosity outside of sport, there is little research on measuring sport fans’ curiosity. Based on Berlyne’s (1960) two dimensions of curiosity, the current research project aimed to develop a reliable and valid measurement scale for sport fans’ specific curiosity. Convenience samples of university students were used. Three studies were used to develop the 11-item Sport Fan Specific Curiosity Scale (SFSCS) was developed. Specifically, the SFSCS consisted of three factors: specific information (5 items), general information (3 items), and sport facility information (3 items). The SFSCS was found to be a reliable and valid scale to measure sport fans’ specific curiosity. The scale should be useful in predicting aspects of sport fan behavior for sport fans at various stages.

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Chris Harwood and Lew Hardy

In their response to our recent paper (Harwood, Hardy, & Swain, 2000), Treasure et al. (2001) claimed to have clarified our misconceptions and misrepresentations of achievement goal research. After first of all commenting on the apparently rather emotive nature of their response, we logically deal with each of their criticisms. Specifically, we present sound theoretical arguments to show that: (a) personal theories of achievement hold primacy over achievement goals; (b) we are not “particularly confused” (or even a little confused) in our understanding of conceptions of ability; (c) there are excellent reasons for examining the possibility of a tripartite approach to goal orientation and goal involvement; and (d) the issue of measurement in achievement goal research needs to be carefully reconsidered. Further, in response to the status quo offered by Treasure and colleagues, we call for more innovative research that will help progress the impact of achievement goal theory in competitive sport.

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Jeffer Eidi Sasaki, Cheryl A. Howe, Dinesh John, Amanda Hickey, Jeremy Steeves, Scott Conger, Kate Lyden, Sarah Kozey-Keadle, Sarah Burkart, Sofiya Alhassan, David Bassett Jr and Patty S. Freedson

Background:

Thirty-five percent of the activities assigned MET values in the Compendium of Energy Expenditures for Youth were obtained from direct measurement of energy expenditure (EE). The aim of this study was to provide directly measured EE for several different activities in youth.

Methods:

Resting metabolic rate (RMR) of 178 youths (80 females, 98 males) was first measured. Participants then performed structured activity bouts while wearing a portable metabolic system to directly measure EE. Steady-state oxygen consumption data were used to compute activity METstandard (activity VO2/3.5) and METmeasured (activity VO2/measured RMR) for the different activities.

Results:

Rates of EE were measured for 70 different activities and ranged from 1.9 to 12.0 METstandard and 1.5 to 10.0 METmeasured.

Conclusion:

This study provides directly measured energy cost values for 70 activities in children and adolescents. It contributes empirical data to support the expansion of the Compendium of Energy Expenditures for Youth.

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Simon Marshall, Jacqueline Kerr, Jordan Carlson, Lisa Cadmus-Bertram, Ruth Patterson, Kari Wasilenko, Katie Crist, Dori Rosenberg and Loki Natarajan

The purpose of this study was to compare estimates of sedentary time on weekdays vs. weekend days in older adults and determine if these patterns vary by measurement method. Older adults (N = 230, M = 83.5, SD = 6.5 years) living in retirement communities completed a questionnaire about sedentary behavior and wore an ActiGraph accelerometer for seven days. Participants engaged in 9.4 (SD = 1.5) hr per day of accelerometer-measured sedentary time, but self-reported engaging in 11.4 (SD = 4.9) hr per day. Men and older participants had more accelerometer-measured sedentary time than their counterparts. The difference between accelerometer-measured weekday and weekend sedentary time was nonsignificant. However, participants self-reported 1.1 hr per day more sedentary time on weekdays compared with weekend days. Findings suggest self-reported but not accelerometer-measured sedentary time should be investigated separately for weekdays and weekend days, and that self-reports may overestimate sedentary time in older adults.

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J. Jimenez-Pardo, J.D. Holmes, M.E. Jenkins and A.M. Johnson

Physical activity is generally thought to be beneficial to individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD). There is, however, limited information regarding current rates of physical activity among individuals with PD, possibly due to a lack of well-validated measurement tools. In the current study we sampled 63 individuals (31 women) living with PD between the ages of 52 and 87 (M = 70.97 years, SD = 7.53), and evaluated the amount of physical activity in which they engaged over a 7-day period using a modified form of the Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities (PASIPD). The PASIPD was demonstrated to be a reliable measure within this population, with three theoretically defensible factors: (1) housework and home-based outdoor activities; (2) recreational and fitness activities; and (3) occupational activities. These results suggest that the PASIPD may be useful for monitoring physical activity involvement among individuals with PD, particularly within large-scale questionnaire-based studies.

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Marianne J. R. Gittoes, Ian N. Bezodis and Cassie Wilson

This study aimed to develop and evaluate an image-based method of obtaining anthropometric measurements for accurate subject-specific inertia parameter determination using Yeadon’s (1990) inertia model. Ninety-five anthropometric measurements were obtained directly from five athletic performers and indirectly from digitization of subject-specific whole-body still images. The direct and image-based measurements were used as input into Yeadon’s (1990) inertia model. The overall absolute error in predicted whole-body mass achieved using the image-based approach (2.87%) compared well to that achieved using the direct measurements (2.10%). The inclusion of image-based anthropometric measurements obtained from extremity (hand and feet) images was not found to consistently improve model accuracy achieved using whole-body images only. The presented method provides a successful alternative to direct measurement for obtaining anthropometric measurements required for customized inertia modeling. The noninvasive image-based approach is benefited by the potential for obtaining subject-specific measurements from large samples of subjects and elite athletic performers for whom time-consuming data collections may be undesirable.

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Wendy L. Hurley, Craig Denegar and William E. Buckley

Context:

The relationship between clinical judgments of anterior knee laxity and instrumented measurement of anterior tibial translation is unclear.

Objective:

To examine the relationship between certified athletic trainers’ grading of anterior knee laxity and instrumented measurements of anterior tibial translation.

Design:

Randomized, blinded, clinical assessment.

Setting:

Laboratory.

Participants:

Model patients receiving evaluation of anterior knee laxity.

Intervention:

Twelve model patients were evaluated using a MEDmetric® KT1000™ knee ligament Arthrometer® to establish instrumented measurements of anterior translation values at the tibio-femoral joint. Twenty-two certified athletic trainers were provided with operational definitions of potential laxity grades and examined the model patients to make judgments of anterior knee laxity.

Main Outcome Measures:

Correlation between clinical judgments and instrumented measurements of anterior tibial translation.

Results:

Clinical judgments and instrumented measurements were mutually independent.

Conclusions:

Anterior tibial translation grading by certified athletic trainers should be interpreted with caution during clinical decision-making.

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Martin Stevens, Anita Bakker-van Dijk, Mathieu H.G. de Greef, Koen A.P.M. Lemmink and Piet Rispens

The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of a Dutch translation of a questionnaire to measure self-efficacy in leisure-time physical activity. The questionnaire consisted of three subscales measuring three dimensions of self-efficacy. It was completed by 461 participants, 55–65 years old. Fifty-nine participants took part in a test-retest study. Factor analysis and correlations between the sum-scores of the 3 scales confirmed that each scale measures a different dimension of self-efficacy. The criterion-related validity of 2 of the scales was found to be moderate. All 3 scales had a satisfactory internal consistency, indicating that they are reliable. Stability was assessed with a test-retest procedure, which yielded satisfactory results for 2 of the 3 scales. The results revealed an improvement in self-efficacy for 2 of the scales over a 4-week time period. When outliers were excluded, satisfactory values were obtained for intraclass correlation coefficients between the first and second measurements.