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Jessica Hill, Glyn Howatson, Ken van Someren, David Gaze, Hayley Legg, Jack Lineham and Charles Pedlar

Compression garments are frequently used to facilitate recovery from strenuous exercise.

Purpose:

To identify the effects of 2 different grades of compression garment on recovery indices after strenuous exercise.

Methods:

Forty-five recreationally active participants (n = 26 male and n = 19 female) completed an eccentric-exercise protocol consisting of 100 drop jumps, after which they were matched for body mass and randomly but equally assigned to a high-compression pressure (HI) group, a low-compression pressure (LOW) group, or a sham ultrasound group (SHAM). Participants in the HI and LOW groups wore the garments for 72 h postexercise; participants in the SHAM group received a single treatment of 10-min sham ultrasound. Measures of perceived muscle soreness, maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), countermovement-jump height (CMJ), creatine kinase (CK), C-reactive protein (CRP), and myoglobin (Mb) were assessed before the exercise protocol and again at 1, 24, 48, and 72 h postexercise. Data were analyzed using a repeated-measures ANOVA.

Results:

Recovery of MVC and CMJ was significantly improved with the HI compression garment (P < .05). A significant time-by-treatment interaction was also observed for jump height at 24 h postexercise (P < .05). No significant differences were observed for parameters of soreness and plasma CK, CRP, and Mb.

Conclusions:

The pressures exerted by a compression garment affect recovery after exercise-induced muscle damage, with higher pressure improving recovery of muscle function.

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William Abbott, Adam Brett, Emma Cockburn and Tom Clifford

competitive matches. The functional deficits outlined above are ostensibly due to muscle damage; a consequence of the high strain of the muscle contractions and eccentric activity associated with soccer. 1 , 2 Attempts to alleviate their symptoms often focus on mitigating the initial muscle damage or trying

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Javier T. Gonzalez, Martin J. Barwood, Stuart Goodall, Kevin Thomas and Glyn Howatson

Unaccustomed eccentric exercise using large muscle groups elicits soreness, decrements in physical function and impairs markers of whole-body insulin sensitivity; although these effects are attenuated with a repeated exposure. Eccentric exercise of a small muscle group (elbow flexors) displays similar soreness and damage profiles in response to repeated exposure. However, it is unknown whether damage to small muscle groups impacts upon whole-body insulin sensitivity. This pilot investigation aimed to characterize whole-body insulin sensitivity in response to repeated bouts of eccentric exercise of the elbow flexors. Nine healthy males completed two bouts of eccentric exercise separated by 2 weeks. Insulin resistance (updated homeostasis model of insulin resistance, HOMA2-IR) and muscle damage profiles (soreness and physical function) were assessed before, and 48 h after exercise. Matsuda insulin sensitivity indices (ISIMatsuda) were also determined in 6 participants at the same time points as HOMA2-IR. Soreness was elevated, and physical function impaired, by both bouts of exercise (both p < .05) but to a lesser extent following bout 2 (time x bout interaction, p < .05). Eccentric exercise decreased ISIMatsuda after the first but not the second bout of eccentric exercise (time x bout interaction p < .05). Eccentric exercise performed with an isolated upper limb impairs whole-body insulin sensitivity after the first, but not the second, bout.

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Will Abbott, Callum Brashill, Adam Brett and Tom Clifford

or reduce muscle pain—another common symptom of exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD)—following strenuous, high-intensity exercise. 1 There is, however, a growing body of evidence to suggest that functional food–based supplements, that is, supplements derived from foods containing anti

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Mette Hansen, Jens Bangsbo, Jørgen Jensen, Bo Martin Bibby and Klavs Madsen

This trial aimed to examine the effect of whey protein hydrolysate intake before and after exercise sessions on endurance performance and recovery in elite orienteers during a training camp. Eighteen elite orienteers participated in a randomized controlled intervention trial during a 1-week training camp (13 exercise sessions). Half of the runners (PRO-CHO) ingested a protein drink before (0.3 g kg−1) and a protein-carbohydrate drink after (0.3 g protein kg−1 and 1 g carbohydrate kg−1) each exercise session. The others ingested energy and timematched carbohydrate drinks (CHO). A 4-km run-test with 20 control points was performed before and on the last day of the intervention. Blood and saliva were obtained in the mornings, before and after run-tests, and after the last training session. During the intervention, questionnaires were fulfilled regarding psychological sense of performance capacity and motivation. PRO-CHO and not CHO improved performance in the 4-km run-test (interaction p < .05). An increase in serum creatine kinase was observed during the week, which was greater in CHO than PRO-CHO (interactionp < .01). Lactate dehydrogenase (p < .001) and cortisol (p = .057) increased during the week, but the change did not differ between groups. Reduction in sense of performance capacity during the intervention was greater in CHO (p < .05) than PRO-CHO. In conclusion, ingestion of whey protein hydrolysate before and after each exercise session improves performance and reduces markers of muscle damage during a strenuous 1-week training camp. The results indicate that protein supplementation in conjunction with each exercise session facilitates the recovery from strenuous training in elite orienteers.

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Zeynep Hazar Kanik, Seyit Citaker, Canan Yilmaz Demirtas, Neslihan Celik Bukan, Bulent Celik and Gurkan Gunaydin

spasms, connective tissue damage, muscle damage, inflammation, and enzyme efflux theories. 1 , 2 However, an integration of 3 or more theories is likely to explain muscle soreness. Symptoms of DOMS include muscle soreness, swelling, reduction in range of motion, maximal strength and performance, and

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Thilo Hotfiel, Marion Kellermann, Bernd Swoboda, Dane Wildner, Tobias Golditz, Casper Grim, Martin Raithel, Michael Uder and Rafael Heiss

-weighted sequence images, according to the anatomic margin of each muscle (medial GM, lateral GM, and SM) and copying those over the T2-turbo inversion recovery magnitude and T2-mapping sequence images. To graduate the exercise-induced muscle damage, a modification of the Peetrons’ classification was used

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Mike I. Lambert, Lise Bryer, David B. Hampson, Les Nobbs, Andrea M. Rapolthy, M. Sharhidd Taliep and L. Wayne Viljoen

The aim of this study was to measure the change in running performance in a runner from age 27–64 years. During this time the runner had a history of high-volume training and racing. The change in his average running speed over 10-, 21.1-, 42.2-, and 90-km races was compared with the changes in the age-group records for each distance. He trained an average of 4,051 ± 1,762 km/year and ran 16,604 km during races. His training load reached a peak of 7,596 km/year at the age of 33. His rate of decline in running performance was higher than the expected age decline at 47 years for 10-km, 47 years for 21.1-km, 40 years for the 42.2-km, and 48 years for 90-km races. Decreases in performance with increasing age could be explained by reduced training volume, or, alternatively, high volumes of training and racing might accelerate the normal age-related decrements in running performance.

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Melissa Skein, Rob Duffield, Geoffrey M. Minett, Alanna Snape and Alistair Murphy

Purpose:

This study examined the effects of overnight sleep deprivation on recovery after competitive rugby league matches.

Methods:

Eleven male amateur rugby league players played 2 competitive matches, followed by either a normal night’s sleep (~8 h; CONT) or a sleep-deprived night (~0 h; SDEP) in a randomized fashion. Testing was conducted the morning of the match, immediately postmatch, 2 h postmatch, and the next morning (16 h postmatch). Measures included countermovement-jump (CMJ) distance, knee-extensor maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and voluntary activation (VA), venous-blood creatine kinase (CK) and C-reactive protein (CRP), perceived muscle soreness, and a word–color recognition cognitive-function test. Percent change between postmatch and 16-h postmatch was reported to determine the effect of the intervention the next morning.

Results:

Large effects indicated a greater postmatch to 16-h-postmatch percentage decline in CMJ distance after SDEP than in CONT (P = .10–.16, d = 0.95–1.05). Similarly, the percentage decline in incongruent word–color reaction times was increased in SDEP trials (P = .007, d = 1.75). Measures of MVC did not differ between conditions (P = .40–.75, d = 0.13–0.33), although trends for larger percentage decline in VA were detected in SDEP (P = .19, d = 0.84). Furthermore, large effects indicated higher CK and CRP responses 16 h postmatch in SDEP than in CONT (P = .11–.87, d = 0.80–0.88).

Conclusions:

Sleep deprivation negatively affected recovery after a rugby league match, specifically impairing CMJ distance and cognitive function. Practitioners should promote adequate postmatch sleep patterns or adjust training demands the next day to accommodate the altered physical and cognitive state after sleep deprivation.

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Mary P. Miles, Erin E. Walker, Stephen B. Conant, Shelly P. Hogan and Jessy R. Kidd

Attenuation of exercise-induced interleukin-6 (IL-6) responses by carbohydrate (CHO) has been demonstrated in studies comparing controlled doses (≥ 0.9 g · kg−1 · h−1) to placebo, but not in studies of voluntary intake. This study sought to determine if attenuation of the IL-6 response during a 32.2-km mountain trail race occurs for high compared to low ad libitum CHO intakes. IL-6, C-reactive protein (CRP), and creatine kinase activity (CK) were analyzed from blood samples collected 12 h pre-, 0, 4, and 24 h post-race. Subjects were grouped into low (n = 14, 0.4 ± 0.1 g · kg−1· h−1) and high (n = 18, 0.8 ± 0.2 g · kg−1 · h−1) CHO intake groups. IL-6 0 h post-race (P < 0.05) was higher in the low (40.2 ± 22.7 pg · mL−1) compared to the high CHO group (32.7 ± 22.1 pg · mL−1). CRP and CK both increased post-race, but no differences were observed between groups. Attenuation of exercise-induced IL-6 is apparent across a range of CHO intakes.