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Trent J. Herda, Philip M. Gallagher, Jonathan D. Miller, Matthew P. Bubak and Mandy E. Parra

mechanisms that blunt skeletal muscle growth simultaneously with increasing levels of circulating glucose levels. Normalizing CSA with EI from ultrasound images provides an indirect estimate of contractile versus noncontractile tissue area within the skeletal muscle ( 47 ). When CSA is normalized to EI, it

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Allison L. Kinney, Matthew Giel, Brady Harre, Kyle Heffner, Timothy McCullough, Maria Savino, Alexi Scott and Joaquin A. Barrios

assessment and exercises for the lateral trunk muscles. We hypothesized that the TESU and the FESS would elicit higher muscle activations than the SHA or the LP tasks. Methods Design This comparative laboratory study compared maximum voluntary contraction (MVC)-normalized lateral trunk muscle activation

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Paula B. Costa, Scott R. Richmond, Charles R. Smith, Brad Currier, Richard A. Stecker, Brad T. Gieske, Kimi Kemp, Kyle E. Witherbee and Chad M. Kerksick

, fat, and protein in grams (g) and normalized to body mass. EA was computed in units of kJ/kg fat-free mass (FFM) based on Loucks et al. 3 Resting Metabolic Rate Resting metabolic rate was assessed using indirect calorimetry (TrueOne 2400 Metabolic Measurement System; ParvoMedics, Murray, UT). All data

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Bryan L. Riemann and George J. Davies

normalization methods, 3 and underlying projection mechanics. 1 Although the test is believed to reflect test limb strength, 1 there have been no assessments determining whether test performance is directly associated with UE strength. Isokinetics is the gold standard for assessing muscular strength in

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Gareth Ryan, Heather Johnston and Janice Moreside

90°. The order of abduction angles was randomized to control for fatigue. ER was performed using a cable system with resistance normalized to 3% body mass (mean resistance = 2.13 [0.3] kg; Figure  1B ). Bitter et al 16 showed that resistances greater than 40% MVIC result in increased posterior

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Kamiel Reid and Christine Dallaire

. Consequently, female soccer referees may find it difficult to challenge the normalized patriarchal and masculinized structures and practices associated with both their position and sport culture, and thus adopt the esteemed gendered practices in order to be accepted and recognized just as other sportswomen

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Hyunjae Jeon, Melanie L. McGrath, Neal Grandgenett and Adam B. Rosen

peak torque (Nm) was recorded and normalized with body mass (Nm·kg −1 ). Flexibility First a sit-and-reach (SR) test which tested the flexibility of posterior structures was completed. 1 Then hamstring length was measured with supine active knee extension (AKE; Figure  1 ). 1 The angle between femur

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Youri Geurkink, Gilles Vandewiele, Maarten Lievens, Filip de Turck, Femke Ongenae, Stijn P.J. Matthys, Jan Boone and Jan G. Bourgois

normalized importance (NI) value. The importance of each variable is a measure of the magnitude by which the model-predicted sRPE value is altered for various values of a variable. In our case, the NI was determined through the number of expressions of a variable in the created decision trees. Results The

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Gabriel Andrade Paz, Lohanne Almeida, Larissa Ruiz, Sabrina Casseres, Giovanna Xavier, João Lucas, Haroldo Gualter Santana, Humberto Miranda, Scott Bonnette and Jeffrey Willardson

a 4-second window between the second and sixth seconds. The highest RMS value of the 3 MVICs was used for normalization purposes. 27 Figure 1 Maximal voluntary contraction procedure. (A) Trunk extension. (B) Hip abduction. (C) Knee extension. Experimental Protocol The experiment took place in 4

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Graeme G. Sorbie, Fergal M. Grace, Yaodong Gu, Julien S. Baker and Ukadike C. Ugbolue

sides) collected during a MVC in the Biering-Sorensen position (prone, with the torso horizontally cantilevered over the end of a padded test bench) in order to normalize the EMG data produced by the golf swing. EMG data was collected for 20 seconds, however, only the first 3 seconds of the data was