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Daniel J. Peart, Michael Graham, Callum Blades and Ian H. Walshe

are some limitations we must acknowledge. First, the open nature of the exercise task meant that workload could not be controlled, and therefore, it cannot be discounted that workload may have been different between visits. An objective measurement of workload like heart rate alongside perceived

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Ana Queralt and Javier Molina-García

objective measurements, such as geographical information systems. 4 Indeed, a previous meta-analysis identified the need for the objective assessment of the environment using geographical information system to obtain robust evidence when PA is analyzed. 2 Previous studies have usually classified built

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Brett D. Tarca, Thomas P. Wycherley, Anthony Meade, Paul Bennett and Katia E. Ferrar

assessment of muscle strength is an important consideration in clinical as well as athletic populations, as it is able to track change in a given muscle or joint movement. 3 Objective measurement methods can include electromyography, hand-held dynamometry (HHD), and isokinetic dynamometry, with the latter

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Alex V. Rowlands

children and adults ( 15 ). How does the effect of environmental interventions on physical activity interact with the weather conditions experienced? If so, to what extent (and why) do these effects vary across settings? With the increasing objective measurement of physical activity globally and the

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Melissa M.B. Morrow, Bethany Lowndes, Emma Fortune, Kenton R. Kaufman and M. Susan Hallbeck

observation. 12 , 13 Objective measurement of kinematics outside the laboratory requires wearable sensors that are easy to apply, unobtrusive, and reach a level of accuracy sufficient to answer the study question. Inertial measurement units (IMUs) have grown in popularity for the measurement of joint motion

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Giovanni Mario Pes, Maria Pina Dore, Alessandra Errigo and Michel Poulain

. , … Sveinsson , T . ( 2013 ). Objective measurements of daily physical activity patterns and sedentary behaviour in older adults: Age, gene/environment susceptibility-Reykjavik study . Age and Ageing, 42 , 222 – 229 . PubMed doi:10.1093/ageing/afs160 10.1093/ageing/afs160 Buchman , A.S. , Yu , L

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Danilo R. Silva, Cláudia S. Minderico, Pedro B. Júdice, André O. Werneck, David Ohara, Edilson S. Cyrino and Luís B. Sardinha

accelerometers in youth physical activity studies: a review of methods . J Phys Act Health . 2013 ; 10 ( 3 ): 437 – 450 . PubMed ID: 23620392 doi:10.1123/jpah.10.3.437 23620392 10.1123/jpah.10.3.437 12. Byrom B , Stratton G , Mc Carthy M , Muehlhausen W . Objective measurement of sedentary

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Jian Chen, Bruce Oddson and Heather C. Gilbert

lighting levels in postconcussion syndrome. 22 Symptoms like these that have an objective measurement may be valuable in that they may correlate better with the underlying dysfunctions that are responsible for them. The pattern of symptoms may evolve over successive concussions and provide clues to

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Dietrich Rothenbacher, Dhayana Dallmeier, Michael D. Denkinger, Bernhard O. Boehm, Wolfgang Koenig, Jochen Klenk and ActiFE Study Group

explain these results. The following strengths and limitations need to be considered. A strength of this study is the objective measurement of PA, specifically walking duration. Self-report is prone to bias and may be a particular issue in older adults. However, the results are based on a cross

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Jeremy A. Steeves, Scott A. Conger, Joe R. Mitrzyk, Trevor A. Perry, Elise Flanagan, Alecia K. Fox, Trystan Weisinger and Alexander H.K. Montoye

- and under-estimations) when compared to objective measurement tools ( Prince et al., 2008 ; Sallis & Saelens, 2000 ). In recent years there has been a proliferation of wearable physical activity tracking technologies ( Sullivan & Lachman, 2016 ; Thompson, 2018 ). A wide variety of research-grade and