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Gabrielle Stubblefield, Jeffrey Tilly and Kathy Liu

. Future research examining the comparison of an acute injury to baseline measurements should also include subjective and other objective measurements. Other subjective data should include a questionnaire such as the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure, 15 Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool, 16 and a pain

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Jian Chen, Bruce Oddson and Heather C. Gilbert

lighting levels in postconcussion syndrome. 22 Symptoms like these that have an objective measurement may be valuable in that they may correlate better with the underlying dysfunctions that are responsible for them. The pattern of symptoms may evolve over successive concussions and provide clues to

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Melissa M.B. Morrow, Bethany Lowndes, Emma Fortune, Kenton R. Kaufman and M. Susan Hallbeck

observation. 12 , 13 Objective measurement of kinematics outside the laboratory requires wearable sensors that are easy to apply, unobtrusive, and reach a level of accuracy sufficient to answer the study question. Inertial measurement units (IMUs) have grown in popularity for the measurement of joint motion

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Ana Queralt and Javier Molina-García

objective measurements, such as geographical information systems. 4 Indeed, a previous meta-analysis identified the need for the objective assessment of the environment using geographical information system to obtain robust evidence when PA is analyzed. 2 Previous studies have usually classified built

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Daniel J. Peart, Michael Graham, Callum Blades and Ian H. Walshe

are some limitations we must acknowledge. First, the open nature of the exercise task meant that workload could not be controlled, and therefore, it cannot be discounted that workload may have been different between visits. An objective measurement of workload like heart rate alongside perceived

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Dietrich Rothenbacher, Dhayana Dallmeier, Michael D. Denkinger, Bernhard O. Boehm, Wolfgang Koenig, Jochen Klenk and ActiFE Study Group

explain these results. The following strengths and limitations need to be considered. A strength of this study is the objective measurement of PA, specifically walking duration. Self-report is prone to bias and may be a particular issue in older adults. However, the results are based on a cross

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André O. Werneck, Evelyn C.A. Silva, Maria R.O. Bueno, Lidyane Z. Vignadelli, Adewale L. Oyeyemi, Catiana L.P. Romanzini, Enio R.V. Ronque and Marcelo Romanzini

studies are needed to understand the causal nature of the associations. Notwithstanding, by our knowledge, this was the first study that described the association between sedentary behavior patterns, using objective measurement and adiposity indicators from a middle-income country. Middle-income countries

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Alex V. Rowlands

children and adults ( 15 ). How does the effect of environmental interventions on physical activity interact with the weather conditions experienced? If so, to what extent (and why) do these effects vary across settings? With the increasing objective measurement of physical activity globally and the

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Wesley O’Brien, Michael J. Duncan, Orlagh Farmer and Diarmuid Lester

intervention was collected on participants in their class groups (maximum n  = 30) during specific school visits. Objective measurements, such as FMS and FMS ™ , were carried out during a typical PE class, while subjective self-report questionnaire measurements were taken during a separate school visit in a

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Jeremy A. Steeves, Scott A. Conger, Joe R. Mitrzyk, Trevor A. Perry, Elise Flanagan, Alecia K. Fox, Trystan Weisinger and Alexander H.K. Montoye

- and under-estimations) when compared to objective measurement tools ( Prince et al., 2008 ; Sallis & Saelens, 2000 ). In recent years there has been a proliferation of wearable physical activity tracking technologies ( Sullivan & Lachman, 2016 ; Thompson, 2018 ). A wide variety of research-grade and