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Eduardo Bellomo, Andrew Cooke and James Hardy

visuomotor learning paradigm called the 2 × 10 task. Acquisition was considered explicit because participants learned the correct sequence by trial and error ( Abrahamse et al., 2013 ). This promotes hypothesis testing behavior that leads performers to accumulate a bank of explicit and verbalizable rules to

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Paul G. Schempp

Recent years have seen an increase in the amount of research activity devoted to teaching in physical education. The result of these efforts has been a substantial growth in the body of knowledge regarding movement pedagogy. Most of these undertakings have been completed with the natural science mode of inquiry as the research model. Thus, the natural science research paradigm has emerged as the dominant mode of inquiry and analysis for research on teaching in physical education. In spite of the major contributions made in the engagement of the natural science model, the subscription to a dominant mode of inquiry holds serious consequences in the development of any body of knowledge. The underlying assumptions of a paradigm pose limits to the knowledge to which one has access. Therefore, this paper offers an analysis of the assumptions embedded in the operationalization of the natural science research paradigm in order to illuminate their limitations for research on teaching in physical education. The assumptions of an alternative, qualitative paradigm are also identified and discussed in terms of their potential for researching beyond the limits of the natural science model. It was not the intent of this paper to declare one paradigm superior to any other, but rather to recognize the need for alternative perspectives in researching the phenomenon of teaching physical education.

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Andrew C. Sparkes

This paper considers the implications of claiming allegiance to the naturalistic research paradigm. It suggests that the two paradigms that presently dominate research into physical education are separate and distinct, with attempts to bring them together in a “marriage of convenience” being misguided. Claims for compatibility are focused upon in order to highlight the prevailing confusion between philosophical and technical issues in the research process which often leads to calls for methodological pluralism. These two issues are seen to be intimately linked in the production of a resonant research process that raises questions as to the appropriateness, and ability, of certain methodologies to properly reflect the epistemological framework in which they are embedded. The implications of such a linkage is explored, and naturalistic researchers are implored to reduce their parasitic reliance upon positivism by confronting the central dilemmas of engagement with their own antifoundational paradigm.

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Gregory A. Dale

Qualitative research in sport psychology is slowly becoming more of an accepted form of inquiry, and most of this research is conducted using various interview methods. In this paper, information is provided on a paradigm that has been given little consideration in sport psychology literature. This paradigm is termed existential phenomenology, and within this paradigm a chief mode of inquiry is the phenomenological interview. With its open-ended format and similarities to the athlete-sport psychology consultant interaction in a performance enhancement intervention, it is a method that appears to offer valuable information about the participant’s experience that might otherwise go unnoticied. The basic views of existential phenomenology, including its philosophical foundations as well as instructions for conducting a phenomenological interview study, are provided. Specific discussion of the potential significance of this type of research for the field of sport psychology is offered.

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Pierre Trudel, Michel Milestetd and Diane M. Culver

review varies depending of their context, research interests, and research paradigm. Method of Review There are different types of literature reviews and the systematic review is often proposed as the most rigorous because its strict scientific design makes the synthesis more comprehensive while

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Ryan G. Timmins, Baubak Shamim, Paul J. Tofari, Jack T. Hickey and Donny M. Camera

concurrent training paradigms should be reevaluated when trying to modulate injury risk. Conclusions In conclusion, this is the first study to investigate the effects of conventional resistance, endurance, and concurrent training on hamstring structural adaptations and strength. Following a 12-week

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Julie P. Burland, Adam S. Lepley, Marc Cormier, Lindsay J. DiStefano and Lindsey K. Lepley

in negative psychobehavioral manifestations, a condition known as learned helplessness (LH). 6 – 8 LH is a psychological paradigm that has been well demonstrated in both animal and chronic disease literature 8 – 10 in response to traumatic injury, neural alterations, and uncontrollable situations

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Jonathon Weakley, Carlos Ramirez-Lopez, Shaun McLaren, Nick Dalton-Barron, Dan Weaving, Ben Jones, Kevin Till and Harry Banyard

strength-endurance characteristics. These data, therefore, challenge traditional resistance training paradigms (eg, repetition-based prescription) and add support to a velocity-based approach. By utilizing velocity loss thresholds, we found that both mean and peak velocity and power could be maintained

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Carol M. Liebler and Brian P. Moritz

This study focuses on how sportswriters and other writers engaged in news paradigm repair via the explanations they provided for the failure to catch the Manti Te’o hoax in January 2013. The Te’o story is a particularly provocative context in which to examine such paradigm repair, because the transgression did not lie with a single journalist or news organization but with an entire profession failing to get the story. Reporters, columnists, and bloggers all engaged in repair, although the repair tended to appear most frequently in traditional media and run in nonsport sections. Writers rarely engaged in self-reflexivity, instead assigning blame to others, although they did suggest possible repairs. Nearly all writers pointed to news routines to explain how they had been duped, with particular attention to fact-checking and sources.

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Robert E. Dustman, Rita Emmerson and Donald Shearer

Findings from three research paradigms that employed aerobic exercise as an independent variable were used to test the hypothesis that aerobic exercise improves cognitive-neuropsychological functioning. The research paradigms were animal intervention studies, cross-sectional human studies, and human intervention studies. Results from studies of animals, usually rodents, provide consistent evidence that aerobic fitness is associated with improved neurobiological and behavioral functioning. Cross-sectional studies with humans indicate a strong positive association between physical activity level and cognitive-neuropsychological performance. However, results from these studies must be interpreted cautiously, as individuals who elect to exercise or not exercise may differ on other variables that could influence cognitive-neuropsychological performance. To date, human intervention studies have not consistently demonstrated cognitive-neuropsychological improvements following exercise training. To satisfactorily test the exercise/cognition hypothesis with humans, carefully controlled intervention studies that last longer than those previously employed are needed.