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Edward A. Gray, Thomas A. Green, James A. Betts and Javier T. Gonzalez

capacity via mechanisms other than providing fuel. Indeed, greater carbohydrate availability is associated with a reduction in perceived effort for a given exercise intensity ( Marquet et al., 2016 ; Noakes, 2004 ). However, it was not possible to measure liver glycogen content in the present experiments

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Carlo Castagna, Stefano D’Ottavio, Stefano Cappelli and Susana Cristina Araújo Póvoas

should be encouraged to provide their near maximal effort (ie, training effort) during this kind of functional training. The use of exercise RPE may result in a practical viable modality of evaluating players’ effort during the LSA drills. Using the differential RPE approach, players’ perceived effort

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Andrew J. Carnes and Sara E. Mahoney

group cohesion—that is, common unity and a tendency to “stick together”—and adherence behavior. Should CFE provide a sense of cohesion, it may help recreational runners “stick” to planned training. Existing data also suggest a negative association between cohesion and perceived effort, 31 potentially

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Graeme G. Sorbie, Fergal M. Grace, Yaodong Gu, Julien S. Baker and Ukadike C. Ugbolue

, Martin BJ , Chaffin DB . Predictors of perceived effort in the shoulder during load transfer tasks . Ergonomics . 2007 ; 50 ( 7 ): 1004 – 1016 . PubMed doi: 10.1080 17510819 10.1080/00140130701295947 3. Horton J , Lindsay D , Macintosh B . Abdominal muscle activation of elite male

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Ali M. McManus, Nathan R. Sletten and Daniel J. Green

-trial coefficients of variation for FMD (%) and baseline diameter were 8.2% and 3.0%, respectively. An Eston–Parfitt curvilinear RPE scale ( 17 ) adapted for children was used to compare the perceived effort of the exercise trials. The RPE scale was placed in front of the children during the final 15 seconds of each

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Jorge López-Fernández, Javier Sánchez-Sánchez, Jorge García-Unanue, José Luis Felipe, Enrique Colino and Leonor Gallardo

players’ physiological responses. The lack of differences between AT and NG with respect to HR mean and HR peak in this and previous studies suggest that both surfaces elicit similar physiological responses, 6 , 8 although perceived effort may be higher on AT than on NG. 4 Nevertheless, the

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Baptiste Fournier, Maxime Lussier, Nathalie Bier, Johanne Filiatrault, Manon Parisien, Miguel Chagnon and Marie-Ève Mathieu

that, despite this increased exercise intensity, participants’ perceived effort is not higher in healthy young adults ( Church et al., 2002 ; Rodgers et al., 1995; Saunders, Hipp, Wenos, & Deaton, 2008; Schiffer et al., 2011 ) or in middle-aged and older adults with chronic diseases ( Barberan

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Natalie Kružliaková, Paul A. Estabrooks, Wen You, Valisa Hedrick, Kathleen Porter, Michaela Kiernan and Jamie Zoellner

/rarely, sometimes, or often. Although not scored, this response can be used to gauge individuals’ perceived effort. 27 , 29 Reflective of research that employs the GLTEQ, an adapted version of the GLTEQ was used to assess duration (ie, minutes per bout) in addition to frequency of activities. 48 The adapted

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Denver M.Y. Brown and Steven R. Bray

. Physiological alterations in response to mental fatigue may lead to increased ratings of perceived effort and declines in physical performance. Yet, few studies have assessed physiological changes that occur when people engage in self-control when they are fatigued ( Segerstrom, Smith, & Eisenlohr-Moul, 2011

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Edward K. Coughlan, A. Mark Williams and Paul R. Ford

.R.H. , & Van Doorn , L. ( 1985 ). The construction of a scale to measure perceived effort . The Netherlands : Delft University of Technology . Zimmerman , B.J. ( 1986 ). Becoming a self-regulated learner: Which are the key subprocesses? Contemporary Educational Psychology, 11 , 307 – 313 . doi:10