ratio of energy contributed by CHO in the athlete’s diet as the single metric of the adequacy of CHO intake ( Burke et al., 2004 ). However, even this literature presents erroneous information. For example, proponents of low-CHO high-fat dietary philosophies commonly state that contemporary sports
Louise M. Burke, John A. Hawley, Asker Jeukendrup, James P. Morton, Trent Stellingwerff and Ronald J. Maughan
It is argued that knowledge of the traditions of Western philosophy can play a valuable role in applied sport psychology. A contrast between sophist and Socratic ideas from Athens of the 5th-century BC is used to demonstrate the contribution a sound philosophical foundation can make in professional practice. Sophists are technique driven and concerned solely with specific skills that produce successful performance results. Socratics, in contrast, encourage rigorous personal examination and improved knowledge of self as the only meaningful pathway to personal happiness. The application of each philosophy to counseling situations such as fear of failure and eating disorders is described, and the potential role of philosophy and the humanities in the education of sport psychologists is discussed.
Kerr and Blais’ (2000) paper is frequently ambiguous, incoherent, and severely misrepresents the work of Bouffard, Strean and Davis (1998). Kerr and Blais have committed the logical fallacy of attacking a straw man, which is to misrepresent an opponent’s argument presumably for the purpose of making its attack easier. Although they indicate their desire to proceed without reference to ontological and epistemological assumptions, they implicitly submit the contentious statement that eclecticism is a philosophy that has been accepted by movement skill acquisition researchers. They also endorse eclecticism as a philosophy. In this reaction, I question the validity of numerous statements made by Kerr and Blais and elaborate on some points we made in 1998. I conclude that Kerr and Blais’ paper is a parody of Bouffard, Strean and Davis’ work, which is unlikely to advance our understanding, and submit that the study of research assumptions is an essential part of genuine inquiry.
Brent D. Slife
Behavioral science researchers have long acknowledged that their methods have certain technical limits: measurement errors, design restrictions, problems of inference, and other factors. Within these limits, however, many researchers have assumed that their methods provide truthful, accurate, or objective renderings of their subject matter. The problem is that the philosophical limitations of method qua method are often overlooked. Method is not a neutral tool of inquiry but a biased metatheory about how to adjudicate theories and findings. This bias is most evident in the modernist foundations for traditional science. Three modernist assumptions are described as integral to the philosophy and practice of traditional behavioral science: universalism, materialism, and atomism. For purposes of contrast and to facilitate conversation about these assumptions, three postmodern assumptions are also described: contextuality, lived experience, and radical holism. Neither set of assumptions is advocated. Rather, an evaluation of any method and its philosophy is advocated in light of the questions being asked and subject matter being investigated.
Ronald Gallimore and Roland Tharp
This paper revisits a 1970s study of Coach John Wooden’s teaching practices in light of new information. The original study reported discrete acts of teaching, including the number of instructions, hustles, praises, among other instructional moves. Using qualitative notes recorded during the original study, published sources, and interviews with Coach Wooden and a former UCLA player, we reexamined the 1970s quantitative data to better understand the context of Wooden’s practices and philosophy. We conclude that exquisite and diligent planning lay behind the heavy information load, economy of talk, and practice organization. Had qualitative methods been used to obtain a richer account of the context of his practices, including his pedagogical philosophy, the 1974-1975 quantitative data would have been more fully mined and interpreted.
Michael W. Churton
Development of personnel preparation programs has focused upon a progressive trend away from a strict adherence to a physical education philosophy to a philosophy that stresses more of a multidisciplinary approach. Early obstacles experienced by directors of personnel preparation programs included legislation, program development, and a limited body of knowledge. Future considerations include directors with varied educational backgrounds and a national movement toward quality education. Teacher training programs will need to redefine their curriculum offerings in adapted physical education to address quality assurance requirements. Future programs in adapted physical education will need to become more field based and address functional competencies that will prepare students to meet the psychomotor needs of handicapped children effectively.
Maureen R. Weiss and Becky L. Sisley
The present study examined the problem of coaching attrition in youth sports by asking former coaches why they quit. Also, dropout and current coaches were compared on demographic characteristics, coaching orientations, self-ratings of coaching abilities, and attitudes toward program policies. Current (n = 159) and dropout (n = 97) coaches associated with a youth sports agency responded to a background questionnaire and a coaching orientations and preferred outcomes questionnaire. Dropout coaches also completed a questionnaire to assess the reasons why they quite coaching. Multiple reasons were cited: time involvement, conflicts with job, child no longer participating, loss of motivation, problems with unqualified officiating, and dissatisfaction with program philosophy. Current and dropout coaches were similar on demographic characteristics and coaching orientations but differed on preferred coaching outcomes. Recommendations for retaining youth coaches, and thus coaching continuity for the kids, included enhancing the quality of officiating, providing coaching clinics, and soliciting input from coaches and parents regarding program philosophy and policies.
Robert J. Rotella
This paper presents a philosophy for sport psychology consulting that emphasizes a belief in helping people’s dreams come true, believing in possibilities, trusting in ability and talent, and the awesome power of the mind if the mind is properly directed. Particular attention is focused on learning how to resist socialization in order to do one’s best. A brief introduction of strategies for doing so and how such ideals may be delivered is presented.
William B. Strean and Glyn C. Roberts
Many debates have raged about professional issues in sport psychology, but the research aspect of applied sport psychology has received relatively little attention. In an effort to stimulate thinking about research, this paper discusses the aims of science, the underlying philosophy of science issues that impinge on sport psychology research, and current methodological controversies. The paper concludes with suggestions for future directions for research in applied sport psychology, and implications for consulting are addressed.
Larry L. Fahlberg and Lauri A. Fahlberg
Health enhancement has been associated with the development of empowerment and self-responsibility among program participants. However, if not well planned and implemented, health promotion programs may be at odds with the development of these philosophical objectives. In fact there has been a recognition that traditional treatment approaches may be ineffective for enhancing health. This inadequacy currently seems apparent in the exercise and/or fitness component of programs. Lack of emphasis on enhancement processes may be exemplified by symptoms such as program dependency among participants. Therefore, if empowerment and self-responsibility are philosophical objectives of a program, methods must be congruent with this philosophy.