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Kaitlin R. Lilienthal, Anna Evans Pignol, Jeffrey E. Holm and Nancy Vogeltanz-Holm

This study examined the efficacy of motivational interviewing (MI) for increasing physical activity in aging adults. Eighty-six participants aged 55 years and older were randomly assigned to receive either four weekly sessions of telephone-based MI for increasing physical activity, or a healthy activity living guide (information only control). Changes from baseline weekly caloric expenditure from physical activity, self-efficacy for physical activity, and stage of change for physical activity were compared across groups at posttreatment and six months follow-up. Results indicated that MI participants had higher weekly caloric expenditures from physical activity at posttreatment, but not at six months follow-up; higher self-efficacy for physical activity at six months follow-up; and demonstrated greater stage of change progression across assessments. These findings support the use of telephone-based MI for increasing physical activity in older adults in the short-term. Future studies will need to determine if follow-up booster sessions increase long-term efficacy.

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MinKyoung Song, Robert F. Corwyn, Robert H. Bradley and Julie C. Lumeng

Childhood obesity continues to be an epidemic. 1 , 2 Given that low levels of physical activity increase the risk for obesity, 3 , 4 the importance of physical activity among youth cannot be overemphasized. 5 , 6 Unfortunately, despite increased efforts to promote physical activity levels by

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Leehu Zysberg and Rotem Hemmel

Physical activity (PA) is considered a health-promoting behavior and is associated in the literature with life expectancy, quality of life, well-being, and additional positive health outcomes. 1 – 3 Studies have explored social and environmental aspects shaping PA patterns and levels focusing

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Inácio Crochemore M. da Silva, Grégore I. Mielke, Andréa D. Bertoldi, Paulo Sergio Dourado Arrais, Vera Lucia Luiza, Sotero Serrate Mengue and Pedro C. Hallal

Over 5 million deaths per year are attributable to physical inactivity, which is responsible for 9% of all-cause mortality. 1 Strategies to promote physical activity have been implemented in different settings, and there is currently a better understanding on the correlates of physical activity at

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Jorge Mota, Pedro Silva, Luísa Aires, Maria Paula Santos, José Oliveira and José C. Ribeiro

Background:

The purpose of this study was to examine whether there are differences in physical activity (PA) during specific periods of the day among active and less-active girls.

Methods:

The sample comprised 54 girls age 10 to 15 years. PA was assessed by accelerometry. Girls were grouped as less active, active, and highly active.

Results:

Total minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was significantly higher in more-active girls than in their less-active peers (113 and 72 min/d, respectively). The most-active groups were significantly more engaged in MVPA during the outside-of-school period than were less-active girls. Highly active girls spent a significantly higher amount of their MVPA time outside of school than did the less-active group, which spent a significantly higher proportion of MVPA time during late afternoon.

Conclusion:

Outside-of-school PA is a key point for MVPA engagement. Particularly for the less-active girls, however, schools might provide additional PA.

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Deborah Kendzierski, R. Michael Furr Jr. and Jennifer Schiavoni

Three studies investigated the correlates of physical activity self-definitions among undergraduate exercisers and athletes, and examined the perceived criteria for defining oneself as a weightlifter, basketball player, and exerciser. Perceptions about behavior, motivation-related variables, and social world variables showed consistent relationships with self-definition; correlations between self-definition and enjoyment varied according to activity. Although affective criteria were mentioned by a sizable number of those with and without physical activity self-definitions, participants cited far more behavioral than affective criteria. Other frequently mentioned criteria were also identified. Implications for self-inference are discussed and a preliminary model of physical activity self-definition is presented.

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Mohamad Al-Tannir, Samer Kobrosly, Taha Itani, Mariam El-Rajab and Sawsan Tannir

Background:

This survey aims to assess the prevalence of physical activity among adult Lebanese, and to report the relationship between sociodemographic variables and physical activity behavior, highlighting the correlates discouraging people to carry out physical activity.

Methods:

A cross-sectional study using an anonymous self-reported questionnaire was conducted on 346 adults from four Lebanese districts. Demographic characteristics, physical activity, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and medical history were obtained.

Results:

Prevalence of physical activity among Lebanese adults was 55.5% (192/346). Age, BMI, marital status, medical history, occupation, educational level, and smoking were significantly associated with physical activity (P < .05). Inactive obese participants were about three times more likely to report hypertension and diabetes than inactive normal weight participants (P = .013). BMI was significantly higher among inactive participants (P = .014).

Conclusion:

Physical activity among Lebanese adults was comparable to other populations. Married, non–office workers, and smokers were the main correlates of physical inactivity in Lebanese adulthood.

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Lisa Kakinami, Erin K. O’Loughlin, Erika N. Dugas, Catherine M. Sabiston, Gilles Paradis and Jennifer O’Loughlin

Background:

Compared with traditional nonactive video games, exergaming contributes significantly to overall daily physical activity (PA) in experimental studies, but the association in observational studies is not clear.

Methods:

Data were available in the 2011 to 2012 wave of the Nicotine Dependence in Teens (NDIT) study (N = 829). Multivariable sex-stratified models assessed the association between exergaming (1–3 times per month in the past year) and minutes of moderate and vigorous physical activity in the previous week, and the association between exergaming and meeting PA recommendations.

Results:

Compared with male exergamers, female exergamers were more likely to believe exergames were a good way to integrate PA into their lives (89% vs 62%, P = .0001). After we adjusted for covariates, male exergamers were not significantly different from male nonexergamers in minutes of PA. Female exergamers reported 47 more minutes of moderate PA in the previous week compared with female nonexergamers (P = .03). There was no association between exergaming and meeting PA recommendations.

Conclusion:

Exergaming contributes to moderate minutes of PA among women but not among men. Differences in attitudes toward exergaming should be further explored.

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Katie E. Gunnell, Jennifer Brunet, Erin K. Wing and Mathieu Bélanger

Background:

Perceived barriers to moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (PA) may contribute to the low rates of moderate-to-vigorous PA in adolescents. We examined the psychometric properties of scores from the perceived barriers to moderate-to-vigorous PA scale (PB-MVPA) by examining composite reliability and validity evidence based on the internal structure of the PB-MVPA and relations with other variables.

Methods:

This study was a cross-sectional analysis of data collected in 2013 from adolescents (N = 507; M age = 12.40, SD = .62) via self-report scales.

Results:

Using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, we found that perceived barriers were best represented as two factors representing internal (e.g., “I am not interested in physical activity”) and external (e.g., “I need equipment I don’t have”) dimensions. Composite reliability was over .80. Using multiple regression to examine the relationship between perceived barriers and moderate-to-vigorous PA, we found that perceived internal barriers were inversely related to moderate-to-vigorous PA (β = -.32, p < .05). Based on results of the analysis of variances, there were no known-group sex differences for perceived internal and external barriers (p < .26).

Conclusions:

The PB-MVPA scale demonstrated evidence of score reliability and validity. To improve the understanding of the impact of perceived barriers on moderate-to-vigorous PA in adolescents, researchers should examine internal and external barriers separately.

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Clare Hume, Anna Timperio, Jenny Veitch, Jo Salmon, David Crawford and Kylie Ball

Background:

This study examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between physical activity, sedentary behavior, and depressive symptoms among adolescents.

Methods:

Participants were 155 adolescents (14.4 years ± 0.61) in 2004 (40% boys). Data collection occurred in 2004 and again in 2006. At both time points, participants completed the Centers for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC), from which they were classified as having depressive symptoms (≥15) or not (<15). Organized sport and TV viewing were self-reported and moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA) and vigorous (VPA) physical activity and sedentary time were objectively measured. Logistic and linear regression analyses examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between MVPA, VPA, organized sport, TV viewing, sedentary time, and symptoms of depression.

Results:

There were no cross-sectional or longitudinal associations between MVPA, VPA, organized sport, sedentary time, and symptoms of depression among boys or girls. However, having symptoms of depression in 2004 did predict higher TV viewing among adolescent girls in 2006 (approximately 168 minutes/week more TV viewing; P ≤ .001).

Conclusions:

MVPA, VPA, organized sport and objectively-measured sedentary time appeared unrelated to depressive symptoms in this sample, but depressive symptoms predicted increased TV viewing over time among adolescent girls. Further research is required to determine the clinical relevance of this finding.