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Niall Casserly, Ross Neville, Massimiliano Ditroilo and Adam Grainger

The advent of professionalism in rugby union has meant that the physiological characteristics of elite players have evolved immensely, 1 , 2 resulting in increased physical demands of match play. 3 These increased demands have been coupled with an increased incidence of injury among players, 4

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Ryland Morgans, Rocco Di Michele and Barry Drust

actually covered in the previous match as opposed to trying to influence the training completed through the use of a team’s or player’s typical values. Indeed, the physical load during match play cannot be prearranged like that associated with training sessions, as this physical demand is a consequence of

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Esther Morencos, Blanca Romero-Moraleda, Carlo Castagna and David Casamichana

-pass” rule. 12 Sunderland and Edwards 13 have recently explored the effect of the implementation of the “self-pass” rule on match activities with physical demands. This rule allows players to restart play from a free hit by passing the ball to themselves, enabling the game to flow more freely. The

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Harry E. Routledge, Jill J. Leckey, Matt J. Lee, Andrew Garnham, Stuart Graham, Darren Burgess, Louise M. Burke, Robert M. Erskine, Graeme L. Close and James P. Morton

to fuel the physical demands of elite forward AF match play. Given the apparently greater muscle glycogen cost of AF match play compared with soccer and rugby, sport physiologists and nutritionists should ensure that AF players consume sufficient dietary CHO intake (likely >6 g/kg) in the 24 hours

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Ted Polglaze and Matthias W. Hoppe

Metabolic power ( P met ) has been proposed as a tool to estimate the energetic demands of variable-speed locomotion typically seen in team sports. 1 From the outset, it should be stated that this model is not able to fully account for the physical demands of team-sport activity, 2 , 3 but nor

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Jason D. Vescovi and Greig Watson

physical demands and circumstances. The reference change values indicated for Usg (0.010) and changes in body mass (2.5%) reported previously ( Cheuvront et al., 2010 ) are closely aligned with two times the intraindividual SD in the field hockey players (0.08–0.09 and 1.5–1.6%, respectively) and can be

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Matthew D. DeLang, Mehdi Rouissi, Nicola L. Bragazzi, Karim Chamari and Paul A. Salamh

to lateral dominance over time appear inevitable, similar to the upper-extremity adaptations in tennis players. However, asymmetry in soccer becomes less clear when the innumerable physical demands of the sport are considered: both high- and low-intensity running, 10 – 12 dynamic changes of

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Will Abbott, Callum Brashill, Adam Brett and Tom Clifford

CON, but there were no other differences in dietary intake (Table  1 ). The physical demands of the matches were similar, indicating that the matches were well-matched for external load (Table  1 ). Table 1 A Comparison of External Load (as Measured by GPS) During Match Play and Dietary Intake 24

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Enzo Hollville, Vincent Le Croller, Yoshihiro Hirasawa, Rémi Husson, Giuseppe Rabita and Franck Brocherie

Internationale de Hockey’s rule changes). 1 The physical demands, therefore, require aerobic and anaerobic abilities combined with the aptitude to repeatedly execute technical skills (eg, passing and shooting) under pressure and while fatigued. Previous time–motion analysis studies have reported a decline in

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Robert McCunn, Hugh H.K. Fullagar, Sean Williams, Travis J. Halseth, John A. Sampson and Andrew Murray

, and entertainment value elements. American football is widely played by high school and college athletes throughout the United States. 3 However, due to the inherently aggressive and intense physical demands of the game, injuries are a well-acknowledged aspect of the sport. For instance, a total of