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Marja H. Westhoff, Lysander Stemmerik and Hendriek C. Boshuizen

This study’s purpose was to investigate whether a 10-week low-intensity strength-training program could improve strength of the knee extensors and functional ability. Participants 65 years and older with low knee-extensor muscle strength were randomized into an exercise (n = 11) and a control group (n = 10). Knee-extensor strength and functional ability were measured before and after the program and again 6 months later. Knee-extensor strength (Nm) increased by 54% (13% in the control) by the end of the training program (F = 13.02, p = .01), and most of this improvement was still present 6 months later. The program had a beneficial effect on functional tasks, especially the time taken to rise from a chair in combination with a 3-m walk (F = 3.99, p = .03) and self-reported ability related to lower extremity performance (F = 6.97, p = .02). It seems that this program could contribute to improving functional ability in frail older people.

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Damiano Formenti, Luca Cavaggioni, Marco Duca, Athos Trecroci, Mattia Rapelli, Giampietro Alberti, John Komar and Pierpaolo Iodice

Background: Recent evidence has suggested that chronic physical activities including balance exercises have positive effects on cognition, but their acute effects are still unknown. In the present study, the authors tested the hypothesis that an acute bout of balance exercise would enhance cognitive performance compared with aerobic activity. Methods: A total of 20 healthy middle-aged adults completed 2 acute 30-minute balance and moderate-intensity aerobic exercise sessions on 2 counterbalanced separate occasions. To assess cognitive functions, performance tasks in executive control, perceptual speed, and simple reaction time were tested before and immediately after each exercise session. Results: Although there were no significant interactions (time × exercise condition, P > .05), the main effects of time were significant in executive control (P < .05), perceptual speed (P < .05), and simple reaction time (P < .001), showing improvements after both exercises. Conclusions: These findings highlight that both types of exercise (aerobic, more metabolic and less cognitively demanding; balance, more cognitively and less metabolically demanding) were able to positively affect simple reaction time performance, perceptual speed, and executive control independently of physiological adjustments occurring during aerobic or balance exercise.

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Yuko Oguma, Yusuke Osawa, Michiyo Takayama, Yukiko Abe, Shigeho Tanaka, I-Min Lee and Yasumichi Arai

Background:

To date, there is no physical activity (PA) questionnaire with convergent and construct validity for the oldest-old. The aim of the current study was to investigate the validity of questionnaire-assessed PA in comparison with objective measures determined by uniaxial and triaxial accelerometers and physical performance measures in the oldest-old.

Methods:

Participants were 155 elderly (mean age 90 years) who were examined at the university and agreed to wear an accelerometer for 7 days in the 3-year-follow-up survey of the Tokyo Oldest-Old Survey of Total Health. Fifty-nine participants wore a uniaxial and triaxial accelerometer simultaneously. Self-rated walking, exercise, and household PA were measured using a modified Zutphen PA Questionnaire (PAQ). Several physical performance tests were done, and the associations among PAQ, accelerometer-assessed PA, and physical performances were compared by Spearman’s correlation coefficients.

Results:

Significant, low to moderate correlations between PA measures were seen on questionnaire and accelerometer assessments (ρ = 0.19 to 0.34). Questionnaireassessed PA measure were correlated with a range of lower extremity performance (ρ = 0.21 to 0.29).

Conclusions:

This PAQ demonstrated convergent and construct validity. Our findings suggest that the PAQ can reasonably be used in this oldest-old population to rank their PA level.

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Stephen Harvey, Chris Rissel and Mirjam Pijnappels

Falls among older adults remain a significant public health issue. Bicycling positively influences falls risk factors including reduced balance, muscle weakness, and low self-perceived confidence in maintaining balance. However, this association has not been systematically examined. We recruited 107 community-dwelling participants aged 65 years and older in the Netherlands to determine the relationship between bicycling and falls risk factors. Participants completed three questionnaires on cycling behavior and balance confidence, and also undertook five falls-related physical performance tasks encompassing tests of balance, strength, gait, and endurance. On average, current bicyclists showed significantly better scores in all physical tasks and confidence compared with nonriders ranging from a 10% difference in 6-m walk time to a 141% difference in single-leg balance time (all ps = .01). Type of bike used and duration of bicycling displayed varied associations (.01 < ps < .79). Our findings suggest that bicycle riding warrants further prospective investigation for fall prevention and active aging.

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Sabrine N. Costa, Edgar R. Vieira and Paulo C. B. Bento

center (H+CB) on frailty status, strength, physical function, and gait of prefrail older women. Methods Study Design The study was conducted in the Center for Motor Behavior Studies at the Federal University of Paraná, Brazil, between February 2017 and August 2017. All pre- and postoutcomes measures were

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Miguel A. Sanchez-Lastra, Antonio J. Molina, Vicente Martin, Tania Fernández-Villa, Jose M. Cancela and Carlos Ayan

supposed to bring nonsignificant improvements in some of the physical function parameters ( Liu-Ambrose et al., 2004b ). Scientific evidence regarding the impact that stretching programs have on the fitness and physical function of older adult people is scarce. Furthermore, the little evidence that exists

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Katie J. Thralls and Susan S. Levy

-Figuls, Coll-Planas, Sitia-Rabert, & Salva, 2014 ). Rikli and Jones ( 1999 ) developed Senior Fitness Tests (SFT) that are validated, objective measures of physical functions needed for ADLs. Recently, criterion-referenced fitness standards for maintenance of physical independence for each SFT of physical

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David Geard, Amanda L. Rebar, Peter Reaburn and Rylee A. Dionigi

, psychological, cognitive, and social functioning over time is in short supply or absent ( Donato et al., 2003 ; Wiswell et al., 2001 ). However, cross-sectional data is useful and regularly utilized to investigate the relationship between masters athletes’ age and physical functioning ( Tanaka & Seals, 2003

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Daniël M. van Leeuwen, Fabian van de Bunt, Cornelis J. de Ruiter, Natasja M. van Schoor, Dorly J.H. Deeg and Kaj S. Emanuel

.I. , Russo , A. , … Landi , F. ( 2008 ). Physical function and self-rated health status as predictors of mortality: results from longitudinal analysis in the ilSIRENTE study . BMC Geriatrics, 8 , 34 . 19102751 10.1186/1471-2318-8-34 Crapo , R.O. , Casaburi , R. , Coates , A.L. , Enright , P

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Jian Xu, Poram Choi, Robert W. Motl and Stamatis Agiovlasitis

ID have low levels of physical functioning ( Oppewal, Hilgenkamp, van Wijck, Schoufour, & Evenhuis, 2014 ). Physical fitness levels are also very low, and balance and gait problems have been found in this group of people ( Enkelaar, Smulders, van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, Geurts, & Weerdesteyn