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Kaitlyn P. Roland, Jennifer M. Jakobi and Gareth R. Jones

Interest in yoga is growing, especially among older adults. This review critically summarizes the current literature to investigate whether physical fitness and function benefits are engendered through the practice of yoga in older adults. A comprehensive search yielded 507 studies; 10 studies with 544 participants (69.6 ± 6.3 yr, 71% female) were included. Large variability in yoga styles and measurement outcomes make it challenging to interpret results across studies. Studies reported moderate improvements for gait (ES = 0.54, 0.80), balance (ES = 0.25–1.61), upper/lower body flexibility (ES = 0.25, 0.70), lower body strength (ES = 0.51), and weight loss (ES = 0.73, 0.99). Yoga may engender improvements in some components of fitness in older adults. However, more evidence is needed to determine its effectiveness as an alternative exercise to promote fitness in older adults. Further investigation into yoga as an exercise activity for older adults is warranted.

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Anna Mulasso, Mattia Roppolo, Monica Emma Liubicich, Michele Settanni and Emanuela Rabaglietti

The aim of this study was to assess the direct and indirect effects of a multicomponent exercise (MCE) program on mobility and balance in institutionalized older people. One hundred and twelve subjects (85 women; 83.0 years on average; SD = 7.5) were included in the study, and divided into a MCE-group (MCE-G) and a control group (CG) according to matching techniques. The MCE-G consisted of a 9-month program featuring range-of-motion, strength, and balance exercises performed in small groups. The CG received routine medical and nursing care. The timed up-and-go test and Tinetti Performance-Oriented Mobility Assessment balance subscale were administered at baseline and postintervention. After controlling for physical baseline value, age, sex, residential care facilities, and body mass index, the MCE-G showed positive effects both on mobility (p < .001) and balance (p = .001). The role of balance as mediator in the relationship between participation to the MCE program and mobility was demonstrated.

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Damiano Formenti, Luca Cavaggioni, Marco Duca, Athos Trecroci, Mattia Rapelli, Giampietro Alberti, John Komar and Pierpaolo Iodice

Background: Recent evidence has suggested that chronic physical activities including balance exercises have positive effects on cognition, but their acute effects are still unknown. In the present study, the authors tested the hypothesis that an acute bout of balance exercise would enhance cognitive performance compared with aerobic activity. Methods: A total of 20 healthy middle-aged adults completed 2 acute 30-minute balance and moderate-intensity aerobic exercise sessions on 2 counterbalanced separate occasions. To assess cognitive functions, performance tasks in executive control, perceptual speed, and simple reaction time were tested before and immediately after each exercise session. Results: Although there were no significant interactions (time × exercise condition, P > .05), the main effects of time were significant in executive control (P < .05), perceptual speed (P < .05), and simple reaction time (P < .001), showing improvements after both exercises. Conclusions: These findings highlight that both types of exercise (aerobic, more metabolic and less cognitively demanding; balance, more cognitively and less metabolically demanding) were able to positively affect simple reaction time performance, perceptual speed, and executive control independently of physiological adjustments occurring during aerobic or balance exercise.

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Stephen Harvey, Chris Rissel and Mirjam Pijnappels

Falls among older adults remain a significant public health issue. Bicycling positively influences falls risk factors including reduced balance, muscle weakness, and low self-perceived confidence in maintaining balance. However, this association has not been systematically examined. We recruited 107 community-dwelling participants aged 65 years and older in the Netherlands to determine the relationship between bicycling and falls risk factors. Participants completed three questionnaires on cycling behavior and balance confidence, and also undertook five falls-related physical performance tasks encompassing tests of balance, strength, gait, and endurance. On average, current bicyclists showed significantly better scores in all physical tasks and confidence compared with nonriders ranging from a 10% difference in 6-m walk time to a 141% difference in single-leg balance time (all ps = .01). Type of bike used and duration of bicycling displayed varied associations (.01 < ps < .79). Our findings suggest that bicycle riding warrants further prospective investigation for fall prevention and active aging.

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Yuko Oguma, Yusuke Osawa, Michiyo Takayama, Yukiko Abe, Shigeho Tanaka, I-Min Lee and Yasumichi Arai

Background:

To date, there is no physical activity (PA) questionnaire with convergent and construct validity for the oldest-old. The aim of the current study was to investigate the validity of questionnaire-assessed PA in comparison with objective measures determined by uniaxial and triaxial accelerometers and physical performance measures in the oldest-old.

Methods:

Participants were 155 elderly (mean age 90 years) who were examined at the university and agreed to wear an accelerometer for 7 days in the 3-year-follow-up survey of the Tokyo Oldest-Old Survey of Total Health. Fifty-nine participants wore a uniaxial and triaxial accelerometer simultaneously. Self-rated walking, exercise, and household PA were measured using a modified Zutphen PA Questionnaire (PAQ). Several physical performance tests were done, and the associations among PAQ, accelerometer-assessed PA, and physical performances were compared by Spearman’s correlation coefficients.

Results:

Significant, low to moderate correlations between PA measures were seen on questionnaire and accelerometer assessments (ρ = 0.19 to 0.34). Questionnaireassessed PA measure were correlated with a range of lower extremity performance (ρ = 0.21 to 0.29).

Conclusions:

This PAQ demonstrated convergent and construct validity. Our findings suggest that the PAQ can reasonably be used in this oldest-old population to rank their PA level.

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Sabrine N. Costa, Edgar R. Vieira and Paulo C. B. Bento

center (H+CB) on frailty status, strength, physical function, and gait of prefrail older women. Methods Study Design The study was conducted in the Center for Motor Behavior Studies at the Federal University of Paraná, Brazil, between February 2017 and August 2017. All pre- and postoutcomes measures were

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Miguel A. Sanchez-Lastra, Antonio J. Molina, Vicente Martin, Tania Fernández-Villa, Jose M. Cancela and Carlos Ayan

supposed to bring nonsignificant improvements in some of the physical function parameters ( Liu-Ambrose et al., 2004b ). Scientific evidence regarding the impact that stretching programs have on the fitness and physical function of older adult people is scarce. Furthermore, the little evidence that exists

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Katie J. Thralls and Susan S. Levy

-Figuls, Coll-Planas, Sitia-Rabert, & Salva, 2014 ). Rikli and Jones ( 1999 ) developed Senior Fitness Tests (SFT) that are validated, objective measures of physical functions needed for ADLs. Recently, criterion-referenced fitness standards for maintenance of physical independence for each SFT of physical

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David Geard, Amanda L. Rebar, Peter Reaburn and Rylee A. Dionigi

, psychological, cognitive, and social functioning over time is in short supply or absent ( Donato et al., 2003 ; Wiswell et al., 2001 ). However, cross-sectional data is useful and regularly utilized to investigate the relationship between masters athletes’ age and physical functioning ( Tanaka & Seals, 2003

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Daniël M. van Leeuwen, Fabian van de Bunt, Cornelis J. de Ruiter, Natasja M. van Schoor, Dorly J.H. Deeg and Kaj S. Emanuel

.I. , Russo , A. , … Landi , F. ( 2008 ). Physical function and self-rated health status as predictors of mortality: results from longitudinal analysis in the ilSIRENTE study . BMC Geriatrics, 8 , 34 . 19102751 10.1186/1471-2318-8-34 Crapo , R.O. , Casaburi , R. , Coates , A.L. , Enright , P