activity. This sport is one of the most popular sports worldwide, with 275 million participants of both genders in a wide range of ages. 3 , 4 It is well established that physical training–based interventions can lead to different physiologic responses depending on intraindividual characteristics. 5 , 6
Gustavo Monnerat, Alex S. Maior, Marcio Tannure, Lia K.F.C. Back and Caleb G.M. Santos
Christian P. Cheung, Joshua T. Slysz and Jamie F. Burr
significant variability in the physiological response at a given intensity compared with cycling exercise. 20 Cycle ergometry could be advantageous for testing the physiological response to IPC, as it functions based on set power output (rpm × resistance) rather than a velocity, and exercise efficiency is
Paul G. Montgomery and Brendan D. Maloney
×3 players, it is important to acknowledge that outcomes may also be dependent on the capacity of players, the quality of opposition, and the style of play. All of these may contribute to the large individual differences in the physical demands and physiological responses. The uniformity in the average game
Ross Armstrong, Christopher Michael Brogden and Matt Greig
is the Dance Aerobic Fitness Test (DAFT), 14 which is a standardized routine that elicits a quantifiable physiological response to exercise to allow the measurement of mechanical loading. Global positioning systems (GPS) with triaxial accelerometry have been used to measure mechanical loading which
Aaron T. Scanlan, Daniel M. Berkelmans, William M. Vickery and Crystal O. Kean
Cricket is a popular international team sport with various game formats ranging from long-duration multiday tests to short-duration Twenty20 game play. The role of batsmen is critical to all game formats, with differing physiological demands imposed during each format. Investigation of the physiological demands imposed during cricket batting has historically been neglected, with much of the research focusing on bowling responses and batting technique. A greater understanding of the physiological demands of the batting role in cricket is required to assist strength and conditioning professionals and coaches with the design of training plans, recovery protocols, and player-management strategies. This brief review provides an updated synthesis of the literature examining the internal (eg, metabolic demands and heart rate) and external (eg, activity work rates) physiological responses to batting in the various game formats, as well as simulated play and small-sided-games training. Although few studies have been done in this area, the summary of data provides important insight regarding physiological responses to batting and highlights that more research on this topic is required. Future research is recommended to combine internal and external measures during actual game play, as well as comparing different game formats and playing levels. In addition, understanding the relationship between batting technique and physiological responses is warranted to gain a more holistic understanding of batting in cricket, as well as to develop appropriate coaching and training strategies.
Michael J. Asken
This paper discusses the delivery of sport psychology services to physically challenged (disabled) athletes. It begins with a description of the current status of athletic competition for physically disabled individuals. Commonalities in the sports experience of able-bodied and physically disabled athletes are addressed. Unique issues that must be considered for effective sport psychology consultations with disabled athletes are discussed. These include the background of physical and psychological trauma, altered physiological responses and medical problems, complexities in motivation to compete, unique performance problems, and the structure and organization of disabled sports. The article concludes with the effects of the social environment of disabled sports on the consultation process.
In 1989 we knew that exercise, including regular prescribed physical activity, could be safely performed and described some of the physiological responses to exercise in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Also in 1989, the genetic defect causing cystic fibrosis (CF) was identified leading to improvements in treatment that greatly extended the life span for these patients. Increased understanding of the factors limiting exercise capacity and of the important role of regular exercise in slowing the progression of CF and in modulating some of the effects of the genetic defect on airway function has led to the consensus that regular exercise should be part of the standard of care for this disease.
Tests of repeated-sprint ability provide a simple way to evaluate the basic physical characteristics of speed and endurance necessary to excel in various multiple-sprint sports. Furthermore, such tests help overcome the complications associated with field-based evaluations of this type of exercise. Nevertheless, despite over 40 y of research, many issues regarding our understanding of multiple-sprint work remain unresolved. This commentary aims to raise awareness of issues relating to methodology, physiological responses, and the effectiveness of various ergogenic and training strategies; to promote a greater understanding; and to drive future research.
Randall L. Wilber
“Live high-train low” (LH+TL) altitude training allows athletes to “live high” for the purpose of facilitating altitude acclimatization, as characterized by a significant and sustained increase in endogenous erythropoietin and subsequent increase in erythrocyte volume, while simultaneously enabling them to “train low” for the purpose of replicating sea-level training intensity and oxygen flux, thereby inducing beneficial metabolic and neuromuscular adaptations. In addition to natural/terrestrial LH+TL, several simulated LH+TL devices have been developed including nitrogen apartments, hypoxic tents, and hypoxicator devices. One of the key issues regarding the practical application of LH+TL is what the optimal hypoxic dose is that is needed to facilitate altitude acclimatization and produce the expected beneficial physiological responses and sea-level performance effects. The purpose of this review is to examine this issue from a research-based and applied perspective by addressing the following questions: What is the optimal altitude at which to live, how many days are required at altitude, and how many hours per day are required? It appears that for athletes to derive the hematological benefits of LH+TL while using natural/terrestrial altitude, they need to live at an elevation of 2000 to 2500 m for >4 wk for >22 h/d. For athletes using LH+TL in a simulated altitude environment, fewer hours (12-16 h) of hypoxic exposure might be necessary, but a higher elevation (2500 to 3000 m) is required to achieve similar physiological responses.
Gerhard Tschakert and Peter Hofmann
High-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) has been applied in competitive sports for more than 100 years. In the last decades, interval studies revealed a multitude of beneficial effects in various subjects despite a large variety of exercise prescriptions. Therefore, one could assume that an accurate prescription of HIIE is not relevant. However, the manipulation of HIIE variables (peak workload and peak-workload duration, mean workload, intensity and duration of recovery, number of intervals) directly affects the acute physiological responses during exercise leading to specific medium- and long-term training adaptations. The diversity of intermittent-exercise regimens applied in different studies may suggest that the acute physiological mechanisms during HIIE forced by particular exercise prescriptions are not clear in detail or not taken into consideration. A standardized and consistent approach to the prescription and classification of HIIE is still missing. An optimal and individual setting of the HIIE variables requires the consideration of the physiological responses elicited by the HIIE regimen. In this regard, particularly the intensities and durations of the peak-workload phases are highly relevant since these variables are primarily responsible for the metabolic processes during HIIE in the working muscle (eg, lactate metabolism). In addition, the way of prescribing exercise intensity also markedly influences acute metabolic and cardiorespiratory responses. Turn-point or threshold models are suggested to be more appropriate and accurate to prescribe HIIE intensity than using percentages of maximal heart rate or maximal oxygen uptake.