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Antoine Langeard, Lucile Bigot, Gilles Loggia, Nathalie Chastan, Gaëlle Quarck and Antoine Gauthier

. However, Amiridis et al 15 used NMES superimposed onto maximal voluntary contractions. It is, therefore, difficult to determine if their findings come from voluntary or from NMES-induced muscle contractions, especially because NMES induces different physiologic adaptations compared with NMES or voluntary

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Pedro Ángel Latorre-Román, Juan Francisco Fernández-Povedano, Jesús Salas-Sánchez, Felipe García-Pinillos and Juan Antonio Párraga-Montilla

), %VO 2 max at lactate threshold, and running economy ( McLaughlin, Howley, Bassett, Thompson, & Fitzhugh, 2010 ) as well as biomechanical factors associated with mechanical efficiency ( Moore, 2016 ). In addition, endurance exercises cause physiological adaptations such as the increase of heart and

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Jordan L. Fox, Cody J. O’Grady and Aaron T. Scanlan

or internal. In this regard, external workload represents the exercise dose or the physical demands encountered, while internal workload represents the exercise response or the psychophysiological reactions of players to the imposed demands. 4 Although physiological adaptations are ultimately

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Adam Douglas, Michael A. Rotondi, Joseph Baker, Veronica K. Jamnik and Alison K. Macpherson

intensity for both positions to help mitigate undertraining in relation to competitive demands. Conclusions Specificity of training is an important consideration for the prescription of physical performance programs to elicit physiological adaptations to improve competitive performance. Understanding the

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Ida S. Svendsen, Espen Tønnesen, Leif Inge Tjelta and Stein Ørn

SD . A 6-month analysis of training-intensity distribution and physiological adaptation in ironman triathletes . J Sports Sci . 2011 ; 29 : 1515 – 1523 . PubMed ID: 21967604 doi:10.1080/02640414.2011.596217 10.1080/02640414.2011.596217 21967604 6. Tønnessen E , Sylta Ø , Haugen TA , Hem

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Nicholas Tam, Ross Tucker, Jordan Santos-Concejero, Danielle Prins and Robert P. Lamberts

it is a good collective marker of running performance. Metabolic mechanisms involve improving energy pathways through physiological adaptations that encompass cardiopulmonary enhancements, optimization of fuel metabolism pathways, and improvement of the stretch shortening cycle of muscle fibers. 1

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Blair Mills, Brad Mayo, Francisco Tavares and Matthew Driller

. Furthermore, the effect size results in the current study are comparable with those reported in the previously mentioned studies. 1 , 2 It is possible that these acute responses, when implemented in a chronic setting, may lead to long-term physiological adaptations. Bohlen et al 5 assessed the benefits of

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Georges Baquet, Gregory Dupont, François-Xavier Gamelin, Julien Aucouturier and Serge Berthoin

blood lactate removal allowing a potential improvement of recovery ( 17 ) and/or maintaining V ˙ O 2 at a sufficient level to allow physiological adaptations. However, when performing S-HIIE (15 s) at 120% of maximal aerobic speed (MAS) intercepted with either AR (50% MAS) or PR, Dupont and Berthoin

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Brandon R. Rigby, Ronald W. Davis, Marco A. Avalos, Nicholas A. Levine, Kevin A. Becker and David L. Nichols

on an ATM or AGTM might be appropriate alternatives to exercise on a LTM for adults with PD. The physiological adaptations and changes in functional outcomes to exercise on an ATM in those with PD have not been previously defined. However, differences between functional outcomes following long

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Megan Colletto and Nancy Rodriguez

the likelihood that reduced protein turnover reflects a physiological adaptation to routine yoga practice in yogis. Of significance to our research hypothesis is the possibility that lower protein turnover in yogis represents an efficient use of protein by the body for maintaining muscle. Further