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Adam Douglas, Michael A. Rotondi, Joseph Baker, Veronica K. Jamnik and Alison K. Macpherson

intensity for both positions to help mitigate undertraining in relation to competitive demands. Conclusions Specificity of training is an important consideration for the prescription of physical performance programs to elicit physiological adaptations to improve competitive performance. Understanding the

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Nicholas Tam, Ross Tucker, Jordan Santos-Concejero, Danielle Prins and Robert P. Lamberts

it is a good collective marker of running performance. Metabolic mechanisms involve improving energy pathways through physiological adaptations that encompass cardiopulmonary enhancements, optimization of fuel metabolism pathways, and improvement of the stretch shortening cycle of muscle fibers. 1

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Blair Mills, Brad Mayo, Francisco Tavares and Matthew Driller

. Furthermore, the effect size results in the current study are comparable with those reported in the previously mentioned studies. 1 , 2 It is possible that these acute responses, when implemented in a chronic setting, may lead to long-term physiological adaptations. Bohlen et al 5 assessed the benefits of

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Kristin L. Jonvik, Jan-Willem van Dijk, Joan M.G. Senden, Luc J.C. van Loon and Lex B. Verdijk

studies of elite athletes in high-intensity sports ( Boorsma et al., 2014 ; Peacock et al., 2012 ; Sandbakk et al., 2015 ). Advanced physiological adaptations through extensive training, such as higher muscular capillarization and optimized oxygen transport, may render nitrate supplementation less

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Jordan L. Fox, Cody J. O’Grady and Aaron T. Scanlan

or internal. In this regard, external workload represents the exercise dose or the physical demands encountered, while internal workload represents the exercise response or the psychophysiological reactions of players to the imposed demands. 4 Although physiological adaptations are ultimately

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Ida S. Svendsen, Espen Tønnesen, Leif Inge Tjelta and Stein Ørn

SD . A 6-month analysis of training-intensity distribution and physiological adaptation in ironman triathletes . J Sports Sci . 2011 ; 29 : 1515 – 1523 . PubMed ID: 21967604 doi:10.1080/02640414.2011.596217 10.1080/02640414.2011.596217 21967604 6. Tønnessen E , Sylta Ø , Haugen TA , Hem

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Dustin J. Oranchuk, André R. Nelson, Adam G. Storey and John B. Cronin

Ultrasonographic examination of skeletal-muscle architecture in different regions (ie, proximal, middle, and distal) has become common as a noninvasive means to assess physiological adaptations. 1 – 4 Although the links with performance remain unclear, architectural evaluations of muscle thickness

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Jordan L. Fox, Robert Stanton, Charli Sargent, Cody J. O’Grady and Aaron T. Scanlan

exert different effects on game demands, which warrant investigation. Similarly, accounting for the phase of the season (early, mid, or late season) would be a useful inclusion for future research to consider physical and physiological adaptations that may occur across the in-season. Finally, the

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Andrew D. Nordin and Janet S. Dufek

injury mechanisms due to the rates of mechanical tissue breakdown exceeding the rates of physiological adaptation, thus leading to overuse injury, as outlined by James (2004) 17 in the variability-overuse injury hypothesis. In contrast to intra-individual variability, inter-individual variation often

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Jill L. McNitt-Gray

weaknesses of the individual athlete. Understanding the biomechanics involved in this process provides important insights as to effective movement mechanics for task performance as well as positive physiological adaptations in response to training stimuli applied over time. Finding ways to support the