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Maple Liu, Linda J. Gillis, Nicholas R. Persadie, Stephanie A. Atkinson, Stuart M. Phillips and Brian W. Timmons

There is some evidence that a combination of factors can reduce inflammation and associated metabolic risk factors. We studied the early cardiometabolic and inflammatory adaptations to a short-term exercise intervention with and without milk in obese adolescents. Fifty-four adolescents were randomized to consume milk post exercise (MILK) or a carbohydrate beverage (CONT) during one-week of daily exercise. Insulin levels were not different between the groups post training. Glucose was reduced over time in both groups (-9 ± 13 mg/dl MILK and -6 ± 14 mg/dl CONT, p < .05) but not different between groups. There was a greater decrease in mean arterial pressure (MAP) in the MILK group (-3 ± 6 mmHg MILK vs. 2 ± 7 mmHg CONT, p < .04). Milk provided postexercise did not affect C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) or interleukin-6 (IL-6). The exercise intervention led to an increase in TNF-α in both groups (0.27 ± 0.7 pg/ml MILK and 0.48 ± 0.6 pg/ml CONT, p < .001). The early adaptations to a short-term exercise intervention in obese adolescents include a reduction in MAP and an increase in some inflammatory markers.

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Mindy Millard-Stafford, Gordon L. Warren, Leah Moore Thomas, J. Andrew Doyle, Teresa Snow and Kristen Hitchcock

Post-exercise nutrition is critical to facilitate recovery from training. To determine if added protein (P) or increased carbohydrate (CHO) differentially improves recovery, eight runners ingested: 6% CHO (CHO6), 8% CHO + 2% protein (CHOP), and isocaloric 10% CHO (CHO10) following a 21-km run plus treadmill run to fatigue (RTF) at 90% VO2max. RTF was repeated after 2 h recovery. After 24 h, a 5 km time trial was performed. Insulin and blood glucose were higher (P < 0.05) following CHO10 compared to CHO-P and CHO6, but did not affect improvement from the first to second RTF (29.6% ± 6, 40.5% ± 8.8, 40.5% ± 14.5) or 5 km time (1100 ± 36.3, 1110 ± 37.3, 1118 ± 36.5 s). CK was not different, but perceived soreness with CHO-P (2.1 ± 0.5) was lower than CHO10 (5.2 ± 0.7). Additional calories from CHO or P above that provided in sports drinks does not improve subsequent performance after recovery; but less soreness suggests benefits with CHO-P.

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Charles J. Hardy and W. Jack Rejeski

Three experiments are presented that evaluate the feeling scale (FS) as a measure of affect during exercise. In Experiment 1,.subjects were instructed to check adjectives on the MAACL-R that they would associate with either a "good" or a "bad" feeling during exercise. As predicted, discriminant function analysis indicated that the good/bad dimension of the FS appears to represent a core of emotional expression. In Experiment 2, subjects rated how they felt during exercise at a rate of perceived exertion (RPE) of 11, 15, and 19. There was considerable heterogeneity in FS for each given RPE. Moreover, RPEs and FS ratings were only moderately correlated, r= - .56, suggesting that phenomenologically the two constructs are not isomorphic. Experiment 3 involved three 4-min bouts of exercise at 30, 60, and 90% V02max. Assessed were pre- and post-exercise affect as. .well as RPEs, responses to the FS, Ve, RR, and VO2. Results revealed that RPE and the FS were moderately related, but only at easy and hard workloads. FS ratings evidenced greater variability as metabolic demands increased, and RPEs consistently had stronger ties to physiologic cues than responses to the FS. The theoretical and pragmatic implications of these data are discussed.

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Patrick Gray, Andrew Chappell, Alison McE Jenkinson, Frank Thies and Stuart R. Gray

Due to the potential anti-inflammatory properties of fish-derived long chain n-3 fatty acids, it has been suggested that athletes should regularly consume fish oils—although evidence in support of this recommendation is not clear. While fish oils can positively modulate immune function, it remains possible that, due to their high number of double bonds, there may be concurrent increases in lipid peroxidation. The current study aims to investigate the effect of fish oil supplementation on exercise-induced markers of oxidative stress and muscle damage. Twenty males underwent a 6-week double-blind randomized placebo-controlled supplementation trial involving two groups (fish oil or placebo). After supplementation, participants undertook 200 repetitions of eccentric knee contractions. Blood samples were taken presupplementation, postsupplementation, immediately, 24, 48, and 72 hr postexercise and muscle soreness/maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) assessed. There were no differences in creatine kinase, protein carbonyls, endogenous DNA damage, muscle soreness or MVC between groups. Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were lower (p < .05) at 48 and 72 hr post exercise and H2O2 stimulated DNA damage was lower (p < .05) immediately postexercise in the fish oil, compared with the control group. The current study demonstrates that fish oil supplementation reduces selected markers of oxidative stress after a single bout of eccentric exercise.

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Glen Davison and Michael Gleeson

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of vitamin C with or without carbohydrate consumed acutely in beverages before and during prolonged cycling on immunoendocrine responses. In a single blind, randomized manner six healthy, moderately trained males exercised for 2.5 h at 60% VO2max and consumed either placebo (PLA), carbohydrate (CHO, 6% w/v), vitamin C (VC, 0.15% w/v) or CHO+VC beverages before and during the bouts; trials were separated by 1 wk. CHO and CHO+VC significantly blunted the post-exercise increase in plasma concentrations of cortisol, ACTH, total leukocyte, and neutrophil counts and limited the decrease in plasma glucose concentration and bacteria-stimulated neutrophil degranulation. VC increased plasma antioxidant capacity (PAC) during exercise (P < 0.05) but had no effect on any of the immunoendocrine responses (P > 0.05). CHO+VC increased PAC compared to CHO but had no greater effects, above those observed with CHO alone, on any of the immunoendocrine responses. In conclusion, acute supplementation with a high dose of VC has little or no effect on the hormonal, interleukin-6, or immune response to prolonged exercise and combined ingestion of VC with CHO provides no additional effects compared with CHO alone.

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Daniel G. Syrotuik, Kirsten L. MacFadyen, Vicki J. Harber and Gordon J. Bell

To examine the effects of elk velvet antler supplementation (EVA) combined with training on resting and exercise-stimulated hormonal response, male (n = 25) and female (n = 21) rowers ingested either E VA (560 mg/d) or placebo (PL) during 10 wk of training. VO2max, 2000 m rowing time, leg and bench press strength were determined before and after 5 and 10 wk of training. Serum hormone levels were measured prior to and 5 and 60 min after a simulated 2000 m rowing race. VO2max and strength increased and 2000 m times decreased similarly (P < 0.05) with training. There was no significant difference between the EVA and PL group for any hormonal response. Testosterone (males only) and growth hormone (both genders) were higher 5 min after the simulated race (P < 0.05) but returned to baseline at 60 min. Cortisol was higher 5 and 60 min compared to rest (both genders) (P < 0.05) and was higher 60 min post-exercise following 5 and 10 wk of training. It appears that 10 wk of EVA supplementation does not significantly improve rowing performance nor alter hormonal responses at rest or after acute exercise than training alone.

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Lee N. Burkett, Jack Chisum, Jack Pierce, Kent Pomeroy, Jim Fisher and Margie Martin

Twenty spinal-cord-injured subjects (4 quadriplegics and 16 paraplegics) were maximally stress tested on the Arizona State University wheelchair ergometer. Physiological data for each individual were collected as follows: (a) blood flow in the left leg by a photoelectric plethysmograph before exercise, during exercise, and postexercise, and (b) blood lactates before exercise and post-exercise. Eleven subjects had increased leg blood flow and vasodilation during exercise, but vasoconstriction postexercise. The lactate readings, in comparison to able-bodied individuals, were higher at rest but lower at maximal exercise.

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Gareth J. Smith, Edward C. Rhodes and Robert H. Langill

The purpose of this study was to determine if pre-exercise glucose ingestion would improve distance swimming performance. Additionally, pre-exercise glucose was provided at 2 different feeding intervals to investigate the affects of the timing of administration. Ten male triathletes (X¯±SD: age, 29.5 ± 5.0 years; V̇O2peak, 48.8 ± 3.2 ml · kg’1 · min’) swam 4000 m on 3 occasions following the consumption of either a 10% glucose solution 5 min prior to exercise (G5), a 10% glucose solution 35 min prior to exercise (G35), or a similar volume of placebo (PL). Despite a significant difference (p < ,01) in blood glucose concentration prior to exercise (X¯±SD in mmol · L ’: G" 8.4 ± 1.1 vs. G5 5.2 ± 0.5 or PL 5.3 ± 0.4), no significant differences were observed in total time (X¯±SD in minutes: G* 70.7 ± 7.6, Gs 70.1 ± 7.6. PL 71.9 ± 8.4). post-exercise blood glucose (X¯±SD inmmol · L−1: G35 5.1 ± 1.1, G5 5.1 ± 0.9, PL 5.3 ± 0.4), and average heart rate (X¯±SD in bpnv.G" 155.8±10.8, G5 153.6±12.6. PL 152.0± 12.5; p > .05). While not reaching statistical significance, glucose feedings did result in improved individual performance times, ranging from 24 s to 5 min in 8 of the 10 subjects compared to the placebo. These results were found despite significant differences in blood glucose between trials immediately prior to exercise.

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Dawn M. Maffucci and Robert G. McMurray

The purpose of this study was to compare the effect a 6-hr versus 3-hr prefeeding regimen on exercise performance. The subjects were 8 active women (21.4 ± 0.9 years, 60.4±2.4 kg, 19.9 ± 1.3% body fat. and 165.6±2.1 cm). All women completed 2 exercise trials (separated by 3—6d) on a treadmill where they ran at moderate intensity for 30 min with 30-s sprints at 5-min intervals, followed directly by increasing incrementally the grade until volitional fatigue was achieved. The exercise trials were performed 3 hr and 6 hr after consuming 40 ± 3 kJ/kg meal. Time to exhaustion was 0.75 min shorter (p = .0001) for the 6-H trials compared to the 3-H trials. There were no significant differences in submaximal or peak oxygen uptake, heart rate, or rating of perceived exertion (p > .05). The 6-H trials compared to the 3-H trials resulted in .05 lower RERs (p = .0002), and a 2 mmol lower blood lactate at exhaustion (p = .012). Blood glucose levels and cortisol responses to exercise were similar between trials (p > .05). However, both resting and post exercise insulin levels were lower during 6-H trials. It was concluded that performance of moderate- to high-intensity exercise lasting 35—40 min is improved by consuming a moderately-high carbohydrate. low fat, low protein meal 3-hr before exercise compared to a similar meal consumed 6 hr prior to exercise. Thus, athletes should not skip meals before competition or training sessions.

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Nicolette C. Bishop, Michael Gleeson, Ceri W. Nicholas and Ajmol Ali

Ingesting carbohydrate (CHO) beverages during prolonged, continuous heavy exercise results in smaller changes in the plasma concentrations of several cytokines and attenuates a decline in neutrophil function. In contrast, ingesting CHO during prolonged intermittent exercise appears to have negligible influence on these responses, probably due to the overall moderate intensity of these intermittent exercise protocols. Therefore, we examined the effect of CHO ingestion on plasma interIeukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimuIated neutrophil degranulation responses to high-intensity intermittent running. Six trained male soccer players performed 2 exercise trials, 7 days apart, in a randomized, counterbalanced design. On each occasion, they completed six 15-min periods of intermittent running consisting of maximal sprinting interspersed with less intense periods of running and walking. Subjects consumed either CHO or artificially sweetened placebo(PLA) beverages immediately before and at 15-min intervals during the exercise. At 30 min post-exercise, CHO versus PLA was associated with a higher plasma glucose concentration (p< .01), a lower plasma cortisol and IL-6 concentration (p < .02), and fewer numbers of circulating neutrophils (p < .05). Following the exercise, LPS-stimulated elastase release per neutrophil fell 31 % below baseline values on the PLA trial (p = .06) compared with 11% on the CHO trial (p = .30). Plasma TNF-α concentration increased following the exercise (main effect of time, p < .001) but was not affected by CHO. These data indicate that CHO ingestion attenuates changes in plasma IL-6 concentration, neutrophil trafficking, and LPS-stimulated neutrophil degranulation in response to intermittent exercise that involves bouts of very high intensity exercise.