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Jeanette Gustat, Christopher E. Anderson and Sandy J. Slater

,531.50–59,942.50)  %Households in poverty, median (IQR) 22.40 (7.70–31.15)  %Nonwhite, median (IQR) 52.91 (3.26–75.67) Abbreviation: IQR, interquartile range. a Opening time, closing time, and playground age group were assessed based on signage present in the playground. We found that the 17 playgrounds with duplicate audits

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Vera K. Tsenkova, Chioun Lee and Jennifer Morozink Boylan

degree; 0, bachelor’s degree or higher), family size-adjusted income-to-poverty ratio (2, less than 300%; 1, 300%–599%; 0, 600% or more), current financial situation (2, worst possible; 1, average; 0, best possible), availability of money to meet basic needs (2, not enough; 1, just enough; 0, more than

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Patrick Abi Nader, Evan Hilberg, John M. Schuna, Deborah H. John and Katherine B. Gunter

least 60 minutes of PA on 5 or more days per week. 3 Many factors contribute to children’s abilities to achieve the recommended PA for health, including where they live. Children residing in rural areas are more likely to be living in poverty, less likely to meet PA guidelines, and are at higher risk

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Janet Robertson, Eric Emerson, Susannah Baines and Chris Hatton

.75 (1.46–2.09)] and among children who were eligible for free school meals (FSMs), an indicator of household poverty [8.0% vs 1.9%; prevalence ratio = 4.10 (3.14–5.35)]. 7 , 33 , 34 Procedure Data in the first 4 waves were collected by face-to-face interviews using computer-assisted personal

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Kristen Day

activity, compared with other regions. Given the comparative poverty of many African countries (see Online Supplementary Table 1 ), 17 , 25 active living research may not be a priority. Existing studies primarily emphasized the role of urban versus rural environments and also focused on the association

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Lindley McDavid, Meghan H. McDonough, Bonnie T. Blankenship and James M. LeBreton

-of-school free time is that youth in poverty are at an increased risk to engage in problem behaviors that have long-term negative consequences such as crime, substance use, and violence ( Goldner, Peters, Richards, & Pearce, 2011 ; Richards et al., 2004 ; Svensson & Oberwittler, 2010 ). In contrast, time spent

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Venurs H.Y. Loh, Jerome N. Rachele, Wendy J. Brown, Fatima Ghani and Gavin Turrell

. Health Place . 2009 ; 15 ( 4 ): 1058 – 1063 . PubMed doi:10.1016/j.healthplace.2009.05.001 19473867 10.1016/j.healthplace.2009.05.001 17. Yen IH , Kaplan GA . Poverty area residence and changes in physical activity level: evidence from the Alameda County Study . Am J Public Health . 1998 ; 88

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Lindsey M. Russo, Megan W. Harvey, Penelope Pekow and Lisa Chasan-Taber

2006 Massachusetts insurance reform law provided free health care insurance for residents earning <150% of the federal poverty level. We considered education level and age in multivariable models, but only age qualified as an important covariate. We relied on a self-reported measure of physical

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Angela Devereux-Fitzgerald, Rachael Powell and David P. French

older adults. Actual ward deprivation figures ranged from 38.5% to 54.8% of older adults living in poverty, compared with the English national average of 18.1% ( DCLG, 2011 ). Deprivation figures were based on factors including income, crime risk, access to local amenities, and living environment ( DCLG

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Catherine E. Draper, Simone A. Tomaz, Linda Biersteker, Caylee J. Cook, Jacqui Couper, Monique de Milander, Kamesh Flynn, Sonja Giese, Soezin Krog, Estelle V. Lambert, Tamarin Liebenberg, Cyndi Mendoza, Terri Nunes, Anita Pienaar, Alessandra Priorieschi, Dale E. Rae, Nafeesa Rahbeeni, John J. Reilly, Louis Reynolds, Marie-Louise Samuels, Ricardo Siljeur, Jody Urion, Mariza van Wyk and Anthony D. Okely

poverty), and Canada and Australia (both high-income countries). Although the limitations of adaption frameworks include the need for methodological expertise and the lengthy time frame required for completion, 15 the GRADE-ADOLOPMENT approach proved to be feasible for these guidelines. Furthermore, the