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Vera K. Tsenkova, Chioun Lee and Jennifer Morozink Boylan

degree; 0, bachelor’s degree or higher), family size-adjusted income-to-poverty ratio (2, less than 300%; 1, 300%–599%; 0, 600% or more), current financial situation (2, worst possible; 1, average; 0, best possible), availability of money to meet basic needs (2, not enough; 1, just enough; 0, more than

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Erica Pasquini and Melissa Thompson

with which to accomplish the same goals. References Carter , A.D. , & Bloom , G.A. ( 2009 ). Coaching knowledge and success: Going beyond athletic experiences . Journal of Sport Behavior, 32 , 419 – 437 . Coombs , P.H. , & Ahmed , M. ( 1974 ). Attacking rural poverty: How nonformal

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MinKyoung Song, Robert F. Corwyn, Robert H. Bradley and Julie C. Lumeng

to an income-to-needs ratio based on federal poverty levels for each family size (ratio of <2.0 is considered low income). 37 Information on whether the mother had a partner/spouse was obtained by interview at ages 9, 11, 12, and 15. Data collection sites were grouped by region of residence at age

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Janet Robertson, Eric Emerson, Susannah Baines and Chris Hatton

.75 (1.46–2.09)] and among children who were eligible for free school meals (FSMs), an indicator of household poverty [8.0% vs 1.9%; prevalence ratio = 4.10 (3.14–5.35)]. 7 , 33 , 34 Procedure Data in the first 4 waves were collected by face-to-face interviews using computer-assisted personal

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Lindley McDavid, Meghan H. McDonough, Bonnie T. Blankenship and James M. LeBreton

-of-school free time is that youth in poverty are at an increased risk to engage in problem behaviors that have long-term negative consequences such as crime, substance use, and violence ( Goldner, Peters, Richards, & Pearce, 2011 ; Richards et al., 2004 ; Svensson & Oberwittler, 2010 ). In contrast, time spent

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Kristen Day

activity, compared with other regions. Given the comparative poverty of many African countries (see Online Supplementary Table 1 ), 17 , 25 active living research may not be a priority. Existing studies primarily emphasized the role of urban versus rural environments and also focused on the association

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Laureen H. Smith, Devin Laurent, Erica Baumker and Rick L. Petosa

distrust of outsiders and of the formal health care system. 19 , 20 Furthermore, rural Appalachia has environmental, economic, and social characteristics that influence health problems. 8 Reduced educational opportunities and high unemployment have led to economic instability and persistent poverty

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Angela Devereux-Fitzgerald, Rachael Powell and David P. French

older adults. Actual ward deprivation figures ranged from 38.5% to 54.8% of older adults living in poverty, compared with the English national average of 18.1% ( DCLG, 2011 ). Deprivation figures were based on factors including income, crime risk, access to local amenities, and living environment ( DCLG

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Venurs H.Y. Loh, Jerome N. Rachele, Wendy J. Brown, Fatima Ghani and Gavin Turrell

. Health Place . 2009 ; 15 ( 4 ): 1058 – 1063 . PubMed doi:10.1016/j.healthplace.2009.05.001 19473867 10.1016/j.healthplace.2009.05.001 17. Yen IH , Kaplan GA . Poverty area residence and changes in physical activity level: evidence from the Alameda County Study . Am J Public Health . 1998 ; 88

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Catherine E. Draper, Simone A. Tomaz, Linda Biersteker, Caylee J. Cook, Jacqui Couper, Monique de Milander, Kamesh Flynn, Sonja Giese, Soezin Krog, Estelle V. Lambert, Tamarin Liebenberg, Cyndi Mendoza, Terri Nunes, Anita Pienaar, Alessandra Priorieschi, Dale E. Rae, Nafeesa Rahbeeni, John J. Reilly, Louis Reynolds, Marie-Louise Samuels, Ricardo Siljeur, Jody Urion, Mariza van Wyk and Anthony D. Okely

poverty), and Canada and Australia (both high-income countries). Although the limitations of adaption frameworks include the need for methodological expertise and the lengthy time frame required for completion, 15 the GRADE-ADOLOPMENT approach proved to be feasible for these guidelines. Furthermore, the