Qualitative skill analysis is an essential analytic tool for physical educators (Hay, 1973) and refers to a process in which a teacher identifies discrepancies between the actual response observed and the desired response (Hoffman, 1977b). Providing instruction for preservice teachers regarding how to recognize errors has been largely neglected in teacher preparation (Barrett, 1979; Hoffman, 1977a; Locke, 1972). The purpose of this study was to evaluate an alternative approach for teaching qualitative skill analysis to undergraduates. The study evaluated the effectiveness of a visual-discrimination training program. The subjects were 18 undergraduate students. The visual-discrimination training program was introduced using a multiple-baseline design across three volleyball skills: the forearm pass, the overhead pass, and the overhead serve. After the introduction of each instructional component, subjects made abrupt improvements in correctly analyzing the volleyball skill. This approach for teaching qualitative skill analysis is one alternative to the conventional techniques currently being used in professional preparation.
Brian R. Bolt
The purpose of this study was to investigate and describe whether cognitive growth occurred among preservice physical educators in an elementary educational games class in which case discussions were used as a teaching method. Cognitive growth was defined as the ability to identify problems and generate possible solutions while drawing on concepts and personal experiences. Assessing whether change takes place and exploring connections between cognitive growth and the case discussions is an important first step toward learning about the potential effects of case discussions in physical education. Data were case discussion transcriptions, interviews, and preservice teachers’ written reflections on lesson episodes completed before and after their participation in three case discussions. Cases were complex narratives about elementary physical education teaching and learning. Data revealed an improved general propensity to identify problems, suggest solutions, and cite concepts in written reflections. Connections between cognitive growth and the case discussions are explored.
Weiyun Chen, Kristin Hendricks and Weimo Zhu
The purpose of this study was to design and validate the Basketball Offensive Game Performance Instrument (BOGPI) that assesses an individual player’s offensive game performance competency in basketball. Twelve physical education teacher education (PETE) students playing two 10-minute, 3 vs. 3 basketball games were videotaped at end of a basketball unit in one physical education teaching methods course. Two investigators independently coded each player’s offensive game behaviors with BOGPI. The interrater reliability of the BOGPI was 99% and the alpha reliability coefficient for the total scale of the BOGPI was .95. The content validity evidence of the BOGPI was established by six experienced experts’ judgment. The results of this study indicate that the BOGPI is a theoretically sound and psychometrically supported measure that can be used by researchers and teacher educators to assess the preservice teachers’ offensive game performance ability in basketball.
Stefan Ward, Heidi Henschel Pellett and Mark I. Perez
The purpose of this study was to explore preservice teachers’ experiences of cognitive disequilibrium (CD) theory during a service-learning project in a study abroad experience.
A case study with 8 participants was used. Data sources consisted of: Formal interviews, videos of planning, videos of teaching, videos of reflection sessions, and informal interviews. Data were analyzed utilizing open and axial coding (Corbin & Strauss, 2008). Trustworthiness strategies included: prolonged engagement, multiple data source triangulation, and member checks.
Results indicated four themes: “We made it our own thing”, “Summer camp for teachers”, “Struggle and disequilibrium”, and “By the end it was a transformation”.
CD was ultimately positive for these students. The positive resolution of CD catalyzed a transformative effect on their perceptions of their teaching. This was supported by positive peer interaction.
Ali Brian, Adam Pennell, Ryan Sacko and Michaela Schenkelburg
Most early childhood centers charge preschool teachers with delivering gross motor skill content and providing physical activity (PA) opportunities to children. Little is known regarding preschool teachers’ background and confidence and the extent to which centers meet the Active Start Guidelines (ASGs) for PA. Preschool teachers (N = 102) completed an exploratory survey and the Self-Perception Profile for Adults Athletic Competence subscale. Eighty-eight percent possessed no formal background in physical education (PE)/PA, while most teachers (77%) were not aware of the ASGs. Most participants (92%) reported that they do not provide daily, teacher-led PE/PA programming, and less than half (47%) provided at least 60 min of daily free play. Preschool teachers were found to have below average perceived motor competence. Recommendations are provided for preservice teacher training programs, policymakers, as well as professional development of in-service teachers.
Jaimie McMullen, Hans van der Mars and Julie A. Jahn
The purpose of this study is to describe the experiences of physical education teacher education (PETE) majors enrolled in an internship course that provided them with authentic experiences promoting and facilitating a before-school physical activity (PA) program and to examine the associated implications for PETE programs within the Comprehensive School Physical Activity (CSPAP) framework. In this study, five PETE majors were recruited to participate. Data were collected from several sources including participant observation, interviews, systematic observation, and document analysis. The results show that preservice physical educators struggled with PA promotion as a consequence of perceptions of early programmatic success, feelings of nervousness and influences of their existing beliefs about the role of the physical educator. Therefore, when considering the role of the physical educator relative to a CSPAP, PETE programs should consider making adjustments to their curricula to include experiences that allow preservice teachers to practice skills associated with out-of-class PA promotion.
Matthew D. Curtner-Smith
Much research on physical education preservice teachers’ (PTs) perceptions of effective teaching during early field experiences (EFEs) or student teaching has indicated a concern for keeping pupils well-behaved, busy, and happy (e.g., Placek, 1983). The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of an EFE, combined with a methods course developed from the knowledge base on effective teaching, on PT conceptions of the teaching-learning process. Data were collected using the critical incident technique (Flanagan, 1954) and a reflective questionnaire (O’Sullivan & Tsangaridou, 1992). PT responses were analyzed by employing Goetz and LeCompte’s (1984) analytic induction method. PTs were concerned with pupil learning or elements of teaching related to pupil learning, focused primarily on teaching technique, and believed that knowledge of sports and games was a vital component of teacher effectiveness, frequently mentioning that they were lacking in this area.
Shan-Hui (Tiffany) Hsu and Rose Chepyator-Thomson
The purpose of the study focused on how textbook authors in secondary school physical education used multicultural education concepts, using Banks’ (2006a) dimensions and Sleeter and Grant’s (1999) approaches. Data collection methods included examination of textbooks’ chapters, indexes, and references in five textbooks. Constant comparison method was used in data analysis. The findings of the study follow: 1) Most textbook authors treated multicultural education as an additive concept in the curriculum section and emphasized issues of gender and disability, 2) all of the textbook authors adopted either Banks’ or Sleeter and Grant’s multicultural education approaches, (3) Harrison, Blakemore, and Buck addressed issues of gender, disability and ethnicity in content objectives, and 4) Metzler addressed issues of gender and disability with Banks’ content integration and equity-based pedagogy concepts. An implication concerns incorporation of multicultural education concepts in curriculum and pedagogy in preparation of preservice teachers in secondary school physical education.
Ashley Walker, Jody L. Langdon, Gavin Colquitt and Starla McCollum
There is limited research that includes democratic practices to evaluate the PETE program in its ability to prepare preservice teachers (PTs). In other areas such as community health, methodologies have been used to provide a voice to individuals living the experience. The purpose of this study was to examine PTs’ perceptions of a teacher education program during the student teaching experience using Photovoice. A group of PTs (N = 16) from a university in southeast Georgia were given 14 days to capture the strengths and weakness of their teacher preparation program through photography. The PTs then discussed their photographs during two focus groups with the researcher. The focus groups were audio recorded and transcribed. Data analysis included an evaluation of interview transcripts and photographs using content analysis to identify significant themes that emerged. An action plan to promote curricular change was created by the PTs and presented to PETE faculty.
Xiaofen Deng Keating, Stephen Silverman and Pamela Hodges Kulinna
This study examined preservice teacher (PT) attitudes toward fitness tests in schools. A total of 613 PTs at 10 state universities took part in the study. Participants completed a previously validated instrument designed to measure the affective and cognitive components of attitude toward fitness tests. Results suggested that PTs had only slightly positive attitudes toward fitness tests. They did not believe strongly that fitness tests were important or useful. Similar attitude responses were found as students’ professional preparation increased. Thus, physical education teacher education (PETE) programs did not appear to significantly change PT attitudes. Age, gender, associations with professional organizations, or the type of fitness test PTs had performed in their K-12 education also did not impact their attitudes. PT previous experience with fitness tests, however, did influence their attitudes. As might be expected, those who had positive experiences had more positive attitudes.