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Laura Capranica and Mindy L. Millard-Stafford

A prevailing theory (and practical application) is that elite performance requires early childhood skill development and training across various domains, including sport. Debate continues whether children specializing early (ie, training/competition in a single sport) have true advantage compared with those who sample various sports early and specialize in a single sport later (adolescence). Retrospective data and case studies suggest either model yields elite status depending upon the sport category (ie, situational: ball games, martial arts, fencing; quantitative: track and feld, swimming, skiing; or qualitative: gymnastics, diving, figure skating). However, potential risks of early specialization include greater attrition and adverse physical/emotional health outcomes. With the advent of the IOC Youth Olympic Games, increased emphasis on global youth competition has unknown implications but also represents a potential platform for investigation. Modification of youth competition formats should be based upon multidisciplinary research on psycho-physiological responses, and technical-tactical behaviors during competition. The assumption that a simple scaled-down approach of adult competitions facilitates the development of technical/tactical skills of youth athletes is not necessarily substantiated with field-based research. Relatively little evidence exists regarding the long-term effects of rigorous training and competitive schedules on children in specific sports. It is clear that more prospective studies are needed to understand the training dose that optimally develops adaptations in youth without inducing dropout, overtraining syndrome, and/or injury. Such an approach should be sport specific as well as gender based. Until such evidence exists, coaches and sport administrators will continue to rely upon their sport-specific dogma to influence programmatic development of our most vulnerable population.

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Prospective Study Nikos Ntoumanis * Vassilis Barkoukis * Daniel F. Gucciardi * Derwin King Chung Chan * 1 06 2017 39 3 188 198 10.1123/jsep.2016-0243 jsep.2016-0243 Teammate Prosocial and Antisocial Behaviors Predict Task Cohesion and Burnout: The Mediating Role of Affect Ali Al-Yaaribi * Maria

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Ntoumanis * Cliff J. Mallet * 6 2014 36 3 281 292 10.1123/jsep.2013-0260 Research Implicit Motives and Basic Need Satisfaction in Extreme Endurance Sports Julia Schüler * Mirko Wegner * Beat Knechtle * 6 2014 36 3 293 302 10.1123/jsep.2013-0191 Team Perfectionism and Team Performance: A Prospective

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281 281 10.1123/tsp.26.2.261 A Prospective Study of the Influence of Perceived Coaching Style on Burnout Propensity in High Level Young Athletes: Using a Self-Determination Theory Perspective Sandrine Isoard-Gautheur * Emma Guillet-Descas * Pierre-Nicolas Lemyre * 6 2012 26 26 2 2 282 282 298

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-0628 Muscle Fitness Changes During Childhood Associates With Improvements in Cardiometabolic Risk Factors: A Prospective Study Jakob Tarp * Anna Bugge * Niels Christian Møller * Heidi Klakk * Christina Trifonov Rexen * Anders Grøntved * Niels Wedderkopp * 16 2 108 115 10.1123/jpah.2017-0678 jpah

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Siobhán O’Connor, Róisín Leahy, Enda Whyte, Paul O’Donovan and Lauren Fortington

earlier data may not be representative of contemporary injury trends; the similar introduction of helmets in hurling has reduced ocular injuries by 43.3%. 8 A recent prospective study reported an injury rate of 26.4 and 4.2 injuries per 1,000 hr of match play and training, respectively, in elite camogie

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and Nonfallers With the Maximal Base of Support Width (BSW): A One-year Prospective Study Jaap Swanenburg * Anne Gabrielle Mittaz Hager * Arian Nevzati * Andreas Klipstein * 4 2015 23 2 200 204 10.1123/japa.2013-0210 A Perceptually-regulated Exercise Test Predicts Peak Oxygen Uptake in Older

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Study Jakob L. Vingren * James R. Morrow Jr. * Elaine Trudelle-Jackson * Merly T. Mathew * 9 2013 10 10 7 7 1008 1008 1015 1015 10.1123/jpah.10.7.1008 Prescribed Exercise: A Prospective Study of Health-Related Quality of Life and Physical Fitness Among Participants in an Officially Sponsored

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* David B. Klenosky * William A. Harper * Philip J. Troped * 1 07 2018 15 7 523 530 10.1123/jpah.2016-0667 jpah.2016-0667 Changes in Social Integration Predict Changes in Physical Activity: A 25-Year Prospective Study Joey Lightner * Brandon C. Irwin * Matthew Chrisman * 1 07 2018 15 7 531 536

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: A Case-Control Study in Japan Fumi Hirayama * Andy H. Lee * Tetsuo Hiramatsu * 9 2010 7 7 5 5 622 622 626 626 10.1123/jpah.7.5.622 Muscular and Performance Fitness and the Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes: Prospective Study of Japanese Men Susumu S. Sawada * I-Min Lee * Hisashi Naito * Koji