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Jacob D. Meyer, Mary S. Hayney, Christopher L. Coe, Cameron L. Ninos and Bruce P. Barrett

circulation ( Gleeson, McFarlin, & Flynn, 2006 ). While the specific pathways linking exercise to inflammatory activity are unclear, population-based studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have consistently demonstrated significant associations between physical activity or fitness and lower levels of

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Maria À. Cebrià i Iranzo, Mercè Balasch-Bernat, María Á. Tortosa-Chuliá and Sebastià Balasch-Parisi

-group randomized controlled trial in which 81 institutionalized older Spanish adults with sarcopenia were randomized in a single sequence (simple randomization) to one of three balanced groups: one control group (CG) and two resistance training groups (peripheral muscle training group [PMTG] and respiratory muscle

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Jodie Andruschko, Anthony D. Okely and Phil Pearson

( Schulz, Altman, & Moher, 2010 ). Participants A 6-month, 2-arm parallel group, pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted in a co-educational secondary school setting in Sydney, Australia. All girls ( n  = 292) from Grades 7–9 (first three years of secondary school, typically ages 12 to 15

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Guohua Zheng, Xin Zheng, Junzhe Li, Tingjin Duan, Kun Ling, Jing Tao and Lidian Chen

 al., 2015 ; Hayashi et al., 2005 ). However, the effects of Tai Chi on cerebral hemodynamics in older community people have not been studied. The aim of this study was to conduct a randomized controlled trial to examine the effects of Tai Chi on cerebral hemodynamics and the secondary outcomes of physical

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Wonjae Choi and Seungwon Lee

with mild cognitive impairment. We hypothesized that participants who performed the VKP exercise would have improved postural control, muscle strength, and cognitive function. Methods Participants This randomized controlled trial was registered with the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform

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Rosalie Coolkens, Phillip Ward, Jan Seghers and Peter Iserbyt

interval was coded. All observations had an average duration of 20 minutes, and and each target child was observed the full duration of parkour recess. Procedure Intervention A cluster randomized controlled trial was used to examine the differences between the 2 conditions. A total of 14 second

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AmirAli Jafarnezhadgero, Morteza Madadi-Shad, Christopher McCrum and Kiros Karamanidis

criteria were a history of knee injury or surgery, and other degenerative conditions such as severe knee osteoarthritis. The procedures were explained to the participants prior to obtaining informed consent in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. Figure 1 —Flow diagram of randomized control trial

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Nancy M. Gell and Danielle D. Wadsworth

Background:

The study evaluated the effects of a text message intervention on physical activity in adult working women.

Methods:

Eightyseven participants were randomized to an intervention (n = 41) or control group (n = 46). Pedometer step counts and measures of self-efficacy were collected at baseline, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks. Intervention participants received approximately 3 text messages per week that were motivational, informational, and specific to performing physical activity.

Results:

ANCOVA results showed a significant difference between groups for mean steps per day at 12 weeks (6540.0 vs. 5685.0, P = .01) and no significant difference at 24 weeks (6867.7 vs. 6189.0, P = .06). There was no change in mean step counts during or after the intervention compared with baseline. There was a significant difference between groups for mean self-efficacy scores at 12 weeks (68.5 vs. 60.3, P = .02) and at 24 weeks (67.3 vs. 59.0, P = .03).

Conclusion:

Intervention participants had higher step counts after 12 and 24 weeks compared with a control group; however, the difference was significant only at the midpoint of the intervention and was attributable to a decrease in steps for the control group. Text messaging did not increase step counts but may be a cost-effective tool for maintenance of physical activity behavior.

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David R. Lubans, Chris M. Mundey, Nicole J. Lubans and Chris C. Lonsdale

The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy and feasibility of a resistancetraining (RT) and lifestyle-activity program for sedentary older adults. Eligible participants (N = 44) were randomized to an 8-wk intervention or a control group. The primary outcome was lower body muscle strength, and participants completed a range of secondary outcomes. There was a significant group-by-time interaction for lower body muscle strength (difference = 3.9 repetitions [reps], 95% CI = 2.0–5.8 reps; p < .001; d = 1.0). Changes in secondary outcomes were generally small and not statistically significant. Attendance and program satisfaction were both high. A combined elastic-tubing RT and lifestyle-activity program delivered in the community setting is an efficacious and feasible approach to improve health in sedentary older adults.

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Matthew P. Buman, Peter R. Giacobbi Jr., Joseph M. Dzierzewski, Adrienne Aiken Morgan, Christina S. McCrae, Beverly L. Roberts and Michael Marsiske

Background:

Using peer volunteers as delivery agents may improve translation of evidence-based physical activity promotion programs for older adults. This study examined whether tailored support from older peer volunteers could improve initiation and long-term maintenance of physical activity behavior.

Methods:

Participants were randomized to 2 16-week, group-based programs: (1) peer-delivered, theory-based support for physical activity behavior change; or (2) an intervention typically available in community settings (basic education, gym membership, and pedometer for self-monitoring), attention-matched with health education. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was assessed via daily self-report logs at baseline, at the end of the intervention (16 weeks), and at follow-up (18 months), with accelerometry validation (RT3) in a random subsample.

Results:

Seven peer volunteers and 81 sedentary adults were recruited. Retention at the end of the trial was 85% and follow-up at 18 months was 61%. Using intent-to-treat analyses, at 16 weeks, both groups had similar significant improvements in MVPA. At 18 months, the group supplemented with peer support had significantly more MVPA.

Conclusions:

Trained peer volunteers may enhance long-term maintenance of physical activity gains from a community-based intervention. This approach has great potential to be adapted and delivered inexpensively in community settings.