circulation ( Gleeson, McFarlin, & Flynn, 2006 ). While the specific pathways linking exercise to inflammatory activity are unclear, population-based studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have consistently demonstrated significant associations between physical activity or fitness and lower levels of
Jacob D. Meyer, Mary S. Hayney, Christopher L. Coe, Cameron L. Ninos and Bruce P. Barrett
Maria À. Cebrià i Iranzo, Mercè Balasch-Bernat, María Á. Tortosa-Chuliá and Sebastià Balasch-Parisi
-group randomized controlled trial in which 81 institutionalized older Spanish adults with sarcopenia were randomized in a single sequence (simple randomization) to one of three balanced groups: one control group (CG) and two resistance training groups (peripheral muscle training group [PMTG] and respiratory muscle
Jodie Andruschko, Anthony D. Okely and Phil Pearson
( Schulz, Altman, & Moher, 2010 ). Participants A 6-month, 2-arm parallel group, pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted in a co-educational secondary school setting in Sydney, Australia. All girls ( n = 292) from Grades 7–9 (first three years of secondary school, typically ages 12 to 15
Wonjae Choi and Seungwon Lee
with mild cognitive impairment. We hypothesized that participants who performed the VKP exercise would have improved postural control, muscle strength, and cognitive function. Methods Participants This randomized controlled trial was registered with the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform
Guohua Zheng, Xin Zheng, Junzhe Li, Tingjin Duan, Kun Ling, Jing Tao and Lidian Chen
al., 2015 ; Hayashi et al., 2005 ). However, the effects of Tai Chi on cerebral hemodynamics in older community people have not been studied. The aim of this study was to conduct a randomized controlled trial to examine the effects of Tai Chi on cerebral hemodynamics and the secondary outcomes of physical
Rosalie Coolkens, Phillip Ward, Jan Seghers and Peter Iserbyt
interval was coded. All observations had an average duration of 20 minutes, and and each target child was observed the full duration of parkour recess. Procedure Intervention A cluster randomized controlled trial was used to examine the differences between the 2 conditions. A total of 14 second
AmirAli Jafarnezhadgero, Morteza Madadi-Shad, Christopher McCrum and Kiros Karamanidis
criteria were a history of knee injury or surgery, and other degenerative conditions such as severe knee osteoarthritis. The procedures were explained to the participants prior to obtaining informed consent in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. Figure 1 —Flow diagram of randomized control trial
Nancy M. Gell and Danielle D. Wadsworth
The study evaluated the effects of a text message intervention on physical activity in adult working women.
Eightyseven participants were randomized to an intervention (n = 41) or control group (n = 46). Pedometer step counts and measures of self-efficacy were collected at baseline, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks. Intervention participants received approximately 3 text messages per week that were motivational, informational, and specific to performing physical activity.
ANCOVA results showed a significant difference between groups for mean steps per day at 12 weeks (6540.0 vs. 5685.0, P = .01) and no significant difference at 24 weeks (6867.7 vs. 6189.0, P = .06). There was no change in mean step counts during or after the intervention compared with baseline. There was a significant difference between groups for mean self-efficacy scores at 12 weeks (68.5 vs. 60.3, P = .02) and at 24 weeks (67.3 vs. 59.0, P = .03).
Intervention participants had higher step counts after 12 and 24 weeks compared with a control group; however, the difference was significant only at the midpoint of the intervention and was attributable to a decrease in steps for the control group. Text messaging did not increase step counts but may be a cost-effective tool for maintenance of physical activity behavior.
Richard A. Boileau, Edward McAuley, Demetra Demetriou, Naveen K. Devabhaktuni, Gregory L. Dykstra, Jeffery Katula, Jane Nelson, Angelo Pascale, Melissa Pena and Heidi-Mai Talbot
A trial was conducted to examine the effect of moderate aerobic exercise training (AET) on cardiorespiratory (CR) fitness. Previously sedentary participants, age 60-75 years, were randomly assigned to either AET treatment or a control group for 6 months. The AET consisted of walking for 40 min three times/week at an intensity that elevated heart rate to 65% of maximum heart rate reserve. The control group performed a supervised stretching program for 40 min three times/week. CR fitness was assessed before and after the treatments during a grade-incremented treadmill walking test. Both absolute and relative peak V̇O2 significantly increased (p < .01) in the AET group, whereas they decreased modestly in the control group. Maximum treadmill time increased significantly (p < .01) in the AET group relative to the control group. These results indicate that CR fitness as measured by peak V̇O2 modestly improves in the elderly with a moderate-intensity, relatively long-term aerobic exercise program.
Gal Dubnov-Raz, Harri Hemilä, Avner H. Cohen, Barak Rinat, Lauryn Choleva and Naama W. Constantini
Observational studies identified associations between vitamin D insufficiency (serum 25(OH)D > 30ng·ml−1) and risk of upper respiratory infection (URI). Swimmers are highly prone to URIs, which might hinder their performance. The aim of this study was to examine if vitamin D3 supplementation reduces URI burden in vitamin D-insufficient swimmers. Fifty-five competitive adolescent swimmers with vitamin D insufficiency were randomized to receive vitamin D3 (2,000IU·d4) or placebo for 12 winter weeks. A URI symptom questionnaire was completed weekly. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were measured by radio-immunoassay before and after supplementation. We used linear regression to examine the relation between the change in 25(OH)D concentrations during the trial, and the duration and severity of URIs. There were no between-group differences in the frequency, severity, or duration of URIs. Exploratory analyses revealed that in the placebo group only, the change in 25(OH)D concentrations during the trial was highly associated with the duration of URIs (r = −0.90,p > .001), and moderately associated with the severity of URIs (r = −0.65,p = .043). The between-group differences for duration were highly significant. Vitamin D3 supplementation in adolescent swimmers with vitamin D insufficiency did not reduce URI burden. However, larger decreases in serum 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with significantly longer and more severe URI episodes.