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Nathan A. Lewis, Ann Redgrave, Mark Homer, Richard Burden, Wendy Martinson, Brian Moore and Charles R. Pedlar

complexity of the condition, the multifactorial etiology, and the fact that imbalances between training load and recovery may not be the primary reason for the condition. 1 Exercise is a source of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species (RNOS), leading to alterations in redox homeostasis (ARH). 3 RNOS are

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Malachy P. McHugh, Tom Clifford, Will Abbott, Susan Y. Kwiecien, Ian J. Kremenic, Joseph J. DeVita and Glyn Howatson

Countermovement jump (CMJ) tests are commonly used to assess recovery of muscle function following strenuous exercise. Impairments in CMJ have been demonstrated on the days following various forms of exercise including drop jump protocols, 1 – 3 repeated sprint, and simulated field sport tests 4

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Llion A. Roberts, Johnpaul Caia, Lachlan P. James, Tannath J. Scott and Vincent G. Kelly

Optimizing postexercise recovery windows is an invaluable aspect of athletes’ physical preparation cycles. The importance of this window is highlighted by the compounding effects of successive training and/or competitive bouts on physiological and physical function, attributed to residual fatigue

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Jessica M. Stephens, Shona L. Halson, Joanna Miller, Gary J. Slater, Dale W. Chapman and Christopher D. Askew

Cold-water immersion (CWI) is a popular recovery strategy routinely used by athletes to hasten the body’s return to its preexercise state. 1 Recently, the popularity of CWI in practical settings has led to increased research. 2 Studies to date have focused predominantly on the recovery of

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Mary Lynn Manduca and Stephen J. Straub

normal concentration of platelets in an injured area to promote healing and decrease recovery time. 3 Despite the proposed benefits, the effect of PRP on hamstring injuries is unclear. Focused Clinical Question Does the combination of PRP injection and rehabilitation decreased recovery time of acute

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Thomas Sawczuk, Ben Jones, Sean Scantlebury and Kevin Till

It is well established that in order to adapt to a training stimulus, an optimal balance between training stress and recovery is required ( 39 ). Failure to provide appropriate periods of recovery between training sessions and within programs can lead to lowered training capacity ( 9 , 22 ) or

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Edward A. Gray, Thomas A. Green, James A. Betts and Javier T. Gonzalez

short-recovery duration, the rate of glycogen repletion is the principal determinant of recovery time ( Alghannam et al., 2016 ; Casey et al., 2000 ). To maximize glycogen repletion, guidelines recommend ingesting 1.0–1.2 g·kg −1 ·hr −1 carbohydrate of moderate- to high-glycemic index during the first

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Caoimhe Tiernan, Mark Lyons, Tom Comyns, Alan M. Nevill and Giles Warrington

Elite athletes are under considerable physiological stress due to high levels of training and performance requirements. 1 Increased stress can have negative effects on performance, particularly if there is an imbalance between training load and recovery. 2 Insufficient recovery can lead to a

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Louise M. Burke and Inigo Mujika

Postexercise recovery is an important topic among aquatic athletes and involves interest in the quality, quantity, and timing of intake of food and fluids after workouts or competitive events to optimize processes such as refueling, rehydration, repair, and adaptation. Recovery processes that help to minimize the risk of illness and injury are also important but are less well documented. Recovery between workouts or competitive events may have two separate goals: (a) restoration of body losses and changes caused by the first session to restore performance for the next and (b) maximization of the adaptive responses to the stress provided by the session to gradually make the body become better at the features of exercise that are important for performance. In some cases, effective recovery occurs only when nutrients are supplied, and an early supply of nutrients may also be valuable in situations in which the period immediately after exercise provides an enhanced stimulus for recovery. This review summarizes contemporary knowledge of nutritional strategies to promote glycogen resynthesis, restoration of fluid balance, and protein synthesis after different types of exercise stimuli. It notes that some scenarios benefit from a proactive approach to recovery eating, whereas others may not need such attention. In fact, in some situations it may actually be beneficial to withhold nutritional support immediately after exercise. Each athlete should use a cost–benefit analysis of the approaches to recovery after different types of workouts or competitive events and then periodize different recovery strategies into their training or competition programs.

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Jessyca N. Arthur-Cameselle and Molly Curcio

athletes who compete in weight-sensitive sports are at higher risk than those from ballgame sports (e.g.,  Krentz & Warschburger, 2011 ). There are no known studies that report athlete-specific treatment and recovery rate data; however, literature reviews on general ED populations indicate that treatment