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Philip Furley, Matt Dicks and Daniel Memmert

In the present article, we investigate the effects of specific nonverbal behaviors signaling dominance and submissiveness on impression formation and outcome expectation in the soccer penalty kick situation. In Experiment 1, results indicated that penalty takers with dominant body language are perceived more positively by soccer goalkeepers and players and are expected to perform better than players with a submissive body language. This effect was similar for both video and point-light displays. Moreover, in contrast to previous studies, we found no effect of clothing (red vs. white) in the video condition. In Experiment 2, we used the implicit association test to demonstrate that dominant body language is implicitly associated with a positive soccer player schema whereas submissive body language is implicitly associated with a negative soccer player schema. The implications of our findings are discussed with reference to future implications for theory and research in the study of person perception in sport.

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JoAnn Reis and Anne Marie Bird

This two part investigation tested whether or not a self-report measure of broad or narrow attentional style (i.e., the BET and RED subscales of the Test of Attentional and Interpersonal Style-TAIS) could predict cue-processing ability on a task that required processing of peripheral cues. In Experiment 1, it was hypothesized that broad attenders would be superior to narrow attenders. Two separate probe techniques were used to measure peripheral cue processing. Results indicated marginal support for the prediction on the first probe and strong support on the second probe. In Experiment 2, subjects received either positive or negative false feedback in an attempt to manipulate level of anxiety and to observe the subsequent effects on the cue-processing ability of broad and narrow attenders. Broad attenders who received positive feedback processed peripheral cues faster than all other subjects. Findings were discussed within the framework of Kahneman's capacity theory of attention and the desirability of employing a precise operational definition of attention within individual difference research.

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Jon N. Swift Jr., James P. Kehrer, K. Stephen Seiler and Joseph W. Starnes

The purpose of this study was to determine whether submaximal exercise significantly changes the concentration of vitamin E (αToc) in rat liver and skeletal muscle and to establish a time course for the return to basal levels. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, age 8 to 10 weeks, were randomly divided into sedentary control (Con) (n = 7) and exercise n = 17) groups. Exercised animals ran 100 min on a motorized treadmill at approximately 70% VO2max for 3 consecutive days. They were then sacrificed immediately postexercise (0Post), 24 hr post (24Post), or 72 hr post (72Post). The gastrocnemius, red vastus lateralis (RV), white vastus lateralis (WV), and liver were excised and analyzed for αToc concentration by high-performance liquid chromolography utilizing electrochemical detection. We found that after 3 consecutive days of exercise, αToc was reduced in RV and WV at 0Post and 24Post but returned to control values by 72Post. Liver αToc content was not changed at OPost but was significantly reduced at 24 Post and 72 Post. No significant changes in αToc were observed in the gastrocnemius in response to exercise. The data indicate that following an exercise-related decrease, skeletal muscle vitamin E concentration requires more than 24 hr to return to the preexercise concentration, and that the replenishment process may involve redistribution of vitamin E from liver to muscle.

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Kathleen Woolf, Megan M. St. Thomas, Nicole Hahn, Linda A. Vaughan, Amanda G. Carlson and Pamela Hinton

This study examined iron status and nutrient intake in highly active (n = 28; 20 ± 2 yr, ≥12 hr purposeful physical activity per week [PPA/wk]) and sedentary (n = 28; 24 ± 3 yr, ≤2 hr PPA/wk) women. Participants completed a 7-day weighed-food record (energy, protein, fiber, alcohol, and micronutrients), 7-day pedometer/activity log, and fasting blood draw (hemoglobin, hematocrit, red blood cell indices, C-reactive protein, serum iron, percent transferrin saturation, total iron-binding capacity, ferritin, transferrin receptor [sTfR], and sTfR index). Independent-sample t tests and the Mann–Whitney nonparametric test compared mean values between groups. Lower serum ferritin (p = .01) and mean cell hemoglobin (p < .01) concentrations were found in active than in sedentary women. Higher mean sTfR (p = .01) and sTfR index (p < .01) values were found in the active women. No significant differences were found between groups for the other blood markers. Serum ferritin concentrations (storage iron) indicated iron depletion (Stage I) in 21% of active and 18% of sedentary participants. Nonetheless, 50% of active and 18% of sedentary participants were iron depleted as evidenced by the sTfR index (ratio of functional-to-storage iron). Elevated sTfR concentrations (functional iron) were observed in 25% of active and 3% of sedentary participants. Although the active women reported greater iron (p < .01) but similar heme iron intakes, they had higher mean sTfR, higher sTfR index, and lower serum ferritin concentrations than the sedentary women. Assessment of iron status may require measures not commonly used in routine assessments.

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Richard D. Telford, Edward A. Catchpole, Vicki Deakin, Alan C. McLeay and Ashley W. Plank

Blood indicators of eight vitamins (B1, B2, B6, C, E, A, B,12 folate) and six minerals (Cu, Mg, Zn, Ca, P, Al) were measured in 86 athletes before and after a 7- to 8-month period of training. During this period half consumed a multivitamin/mineral supplement and a matched group look a placebo, Following the supplementation period, Mood biochemical indicators of B1, B6, Bl2, and folate status all increased but there were no significant effects of supplementation on B2, C, E, and A, or on the blood levels of any of the minerals. The supplementation had no effect on red or while cell counts or on hemoglobin levels. Irrespective of the supplementation, some blood measures varied according to sex, females evidencing significantly higher values than males for vitamins C, E, copper, magnesium, and aluminum, with B2 being higher in males. It is concluded that 7 to 8 months of multivitamin/mineral supplementation increased the blood nutritional status of some vitamins but did not affect any blood mineral levels, and that some blood nutritional indicators may vary according to sex.

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Stephen M. Gavazzi

This paper examines the incentive-based system of Urban Meyer, head football coach at The Ohio State University. Personal discussions with this coach and members of his football staff took place following a review of his methods as described in biographical and media reports, and were compared with the approaches used by other successful coaches as documented in coaching research. Meyer has created clear guidelines and expectations for behaviors that players must consistently display to be recognized as successful team members and leaders. He also has developed a comprehensive set of processes to promote the development and adherence to those desired behaviors. This examination of Meyer’s approach focuses on the connection between the three levels (Blue, Red and Gold) of his incentive-based system and the three phases of a rite of passage (separation, transformation, and reincorporation) associated with them. The system rewards more grownup behaviors with greater status and privileges befitting the increasingly mature individual. A case is made that coaches can employ such a rites of passage framework as part of a comprehensive philosophy about turning boys into men, thus encouraging successful outcomes both on and off the field.

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Lars Donath and Peter Wolf

Multiaxial force sensors were applied to measure interaction forces during dynamic movements, such as climbing. When interaction forces are interpreted, minimal detectable changes, typical errors, and coefficients of variation of related performance metrics should be quantified. Thus, the presented study evaluated absolute and relative between-trial reliability with and without previous familiarization trials. Eleven Swiss elite climbers (5 females, 6 males) were tested during 2 repetitive climbing sequences (including 4 instrumented holds: 2 crimps, 1 undercling, 1 sloper). To ensure comparable relative intensity, females climbed at 20°, 25°, 30°, 25°, and 20° wall inclination, while males climbed at 25°, 30°, 35°, 30°, and 25°. Contact time, maximal resultant force, mean resultant force, impulse, and the number of load changes were analyzed at the lowest inclination. Acceptable to good between-trial reliability was found for nearly all holds and performance metrics. Performance analyses after 5 minutes of familiarization on the unknown boulder, which equals up to 3 trials, yielded to higher variability compared with performance analyses after several familiarization trials. Accordingly, the majority of absolute and relative reliability data improved after familiarization trails. Thus, to be detectable, interventional changes have to exceed higher biological variability during on-sight conditions than during red-point conditions.

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Irena Auersperger, Bojan Knap, Ales Jerin, Rok Blagus, Mitja Lainscak, Milan Skitek and Branko Skof

Exercise-associated iron deficiency is a common disorder in endurance athletes. The authors investigated the effects of long-term endurance exercise on hepcidin concentrations, inflammatory parameters, and iron status in moderately trained female long-distance runners. Eighteen runners were assigned to either an interval- or a continuous-training exercise group. The physical training consisted of two 3-week progressive overload periods, each followed by a week’s recovery, and concluded with a 10- or 21-km competitive run. Samples were taken 6 times during the 8-wk training program, first at baseline (BPre), then after the first and second 3-wk training loads (TPost1, TPost2), after each recovery week (Recovery1 and Recovery2), and poststudy (BPost). Soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) concentrations were increased in Recovery2 and BPost compared with BPre (p = .02), hemoglobin decreased in TPost1 and TPost2 (p < .001), and red blood cells decreased in TPost2 (p = .01). Hepcidin decreased with time in TPost1 and in BPost compared with BPre (p < .001) and increased in TPost2 compared with TPost1 (p < .001). No differences over time were found for high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. The main findings of the current study indicate that serum hepcidin and sTfR were affected after 8 weeks of endurance running in women. No positive relation was found with inflammation.

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Olga N. Fedotovskaya, Leysan J. Mustafina, Daniil V. Popov, Olga L. Vinogradova and Ildus I. Ahmetov

Purpose:

In red skeletal muscle, monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) is required for lactate to enter the myocytes for oxidation. The A1470T polymorphism (rs1049434) in the MCT1 gene was shown to be associated with lactate transport rates in human skeletal muscles. The aim of the study was to compare genotype and allele frequencies of the MCT1 gene polymorphism in 323 Russian athletes and 467 nonathletic controls and to investigate the association of the MCT1 gene A1470T polymorphism with maximal oxygen consumption and maximal lactate concentration in rowers (n = 79).

Methods:

Genotyping for the A1470T MCT1 polymorphism was performed by PCR-RFLP method. Physiological measurements of 79 Russian rowers of national competitive standard were determined during an incremental test to exhaustion on a rowing ergometer.

Results:

Frequencies of the A allele (71.8% vs 62.5%, P < .0001) and AA genotype (59.8% vs 39.4%, P < .0001) were significantly higher in endurance-oriented athletes (n = 142) than in the control group. Mean blood lactate concentration was higher in male rowers with the T allele (AT+TT 10.26 ± 1.89 mmol/L, AA 8.75 ± 1.69 mmol/L, P = .005).

Conclusions:

MCT1 gene A1470T polymorphism is associated with endurance athlete status and blood lactate level after intensive exercise.

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Malcolm T. Whitehead, Tyler D. Martin, Timothy P. Scheett and Michael J. Webster

The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether echinacea supplementation results in alterations of erythroid growth factors and erythropoietic status. Twenty-four men age 24.9 ± 4.2 y, height 1.7 ± 0.8 m, weight 87.9 ± 14.6 kg, and 19.3% ± 6.5% body fat were grouped using a double-blind design and self-administered an 8000-mg/d dose of either echinacea (ECH) or placebo (PLA) in 5 × 400 mg × 4 times/d for 28 d. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for red blood cells (RBCs), hematocrit (Hct), hemoglobin (Hb), mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin content, prostaglandin E2, ferritin, erythropoietin (EPO), interleukin 3 (IL-3), and granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating factor using automated flow cytometry and ELISA. ANOVA was used to determine significant differences (P ≤ 0.05). EPO was greater (P < 0.001) in ECH at Days 7, 14, and 21 and refected a 44%, 63%, and 36% increase, respectively. IL-3 was greater (P = 0.011) in ECH at Days 14 and 21, which indicated a 65% and 73% increase, respectively. These data indicate that ECH supplementation resulted in an increase in EPO and IL-3 but did not significantly alter RBCs, Hb, or Hct.